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29/03/2012 - March 2012 - Science Update

The following is a quick summary of another nineteen papers that have come out over the last few months related to effects of electromagnetic radiation.


1. P Cammaerts MC et al, (January 2012) GSM 900 MHz radiation inhibits ants' association between food sites and encountered cues, Electromagn Biol Med. 2012 Jan 23. [Epub ahead of print] [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]
 

The kinetics of the acquisition and loss of the use of olfactory and visual cues were previously obtained in six experimental colonies of the ant Myrmica sabuleti meinert 1861, under normal conditions. In the present work, the same experiments were conducted on six other naive identical colonies of M. sabuleti, under electromagnetic radiation similar to those surrounding GSM and communication masts. In this situation, no association between food and either olfactory or visual cues occurred. After a recovery period, the ants were able to make such an association but never reached the expected score. Such ants having acquired a weaker olfactory or visual score and still undergoing olfactory or visual training were again submitted to electromagnetic waves. Not only did they lose all that they had memorized, but also they lost it in a few hours instead of in a few days (as under normal conditions when no longer trained). They kept no visual memory at all (instead of keeping 10% of it as they normally do). The impact of GSM 900 MHz radiation was greater on the visual memory than on the olfactory one. These communication waves may have such a disastrous impact on a wide range of insects using olfactory and/or visual memory, i.e., on bees.


2. - Stevens RG et al, (March 2012) Does Electric Light Stimulate Cancer Development in Children?, Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2012 Mar 15. [Epub ahead of print] [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]
 

Incidence of cancer in children has increased in recent decades, and known risk factors can account for only a small minority of cases. Gestation and early childhood are particularly vulnerable periods in human development and an important aspect of development is in circadian rhythmicity. Emerging evidence implicates the molecular circadian mechanism in a vast array of other physiologic functions including metabolism, DNA damage response and cell-cycle regulation. Electric light exposure at night can disrupt circadian rhythms and, thereby, many other physiologic processes that are under circadian control. On this basis, it is proposed that ill-timed electric light exposure to pregnant women, to neonates, infants, and small children may increase cancer risk in those children. There are practical implications and interventions that accrue from this idea should it later be confirmed to be true.


3. N Little MP et al, (March 2012) Mobile phone use and glioma risk: comparison of epidemiological study results with incidence trends in the United States, BMJ. 2012 Mar 8;344:e1147. doi: 10.1136/bmj.e1147 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]
 

In view of mobile phone exposure being classified as a possible human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), we determined the compatibility of two recent reports of glioma risk (forming the basis of the IARC's classification) with observed incidence trends in the United States. Comparison of observed rates with projected rates of glioma incidence for 1997-2008. We estimated projected rates by combining relative risks reported in the 2010 Interphone study and a 2011 Swedish study by Hardell and colleagues with rates adjusted for age, registry, and sex; data for mobile phone use; and various latency periods. US population based data for glioma incidence in 1992-2008, from 12 registries in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) programme (Atlanta, Detroit, Los Angeles, San Francisco, San Jose-Monterey, Seattle, rural Georgia, Connecticut, Hawaii, Iowa, New Mexico, and Utah). Data for 24-813 non-Hispanic white people diagnosed with glioma at age 18 years or older. Age specific incidence rates of glioma remained generally constant in 1992-2008 (-0.02% change per year, 95% confidence interval -0.28% to 0.25%), a period coinciding with a substantial increase in mobile phone use from close to 0% to almost 100% of the US population. If phone use was associated with glioma risk, we expected glioma incidence rates to be higher than those observed, even with a latency period of 10 years and low relative risks (1.5). Based on relative risks of glioma by tumour latency and cumulative hours of phone use in the Swedish study, predicted rates should have been at least 40% higher than observed rates in 2008. However, predicted glioma rates based on the small proportion of highly exposed people in the Interphone study could be consistent with the observed data. Results remained valid if we used either non-regular users or low users of mobile phones as the baseline category, and if we constrained relative risks to be more than 1. Raised risks of glioma with mobile phone use, as reported by one (Swedish) study forming the basis of the IARC's re-evaluation of mobile phone exposure, are not consistent with observed incidence trends in US population data, although the US data could be consistent with the modest excess risks in the Interphone study.


4. P Aldad TS et al, (March 2012) Fetal radiofrequency radiation exposure from 800-1900 mhz-rated cellular telephones affects neurodevelopment and behavior in mice, Sci Rep. 2012;2:312. Epub 2012 Mar 15 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]
 

Neurobehavioral disorders are increasingly prevalent in children, however their etiology is not well understood. An association between prenatal cellular telephone use and hyperactivity in children has been postulated, yet the direct effects of radiofrequency radiation exposure on neurodevelopment remain unknown. Here we used a mouse model to demonstrate that in-utero radiofrequency exposure from cellular telephones does affect adult behavior. Mice exposed in-utero were hyperactive and had impaired memory as determined using the object recognition, light/dark box and step-down assays. Whole cell patch clamp recordings of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) revealed that these behavioral changes were due to altered neuronal developmental programming. Exposed mice had dose-responsive impaired glutamatergic synaptic transmission onto layer V pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex. We present the first experimental evidence of neuropathology due to in-utero cellular telephone radiation. Further experiments are needed in humans or non-human primates to determine the risk of exposure during pregnancy.


5. P Bellieni CV et al, (March 2012) Is newborn melatonin production influenced by magnetic fields produced by incubators?, Early Hum Dev. 2012 Mar 13. [Epub ahead of print] [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]
 

During permanence in most incubators, newborns are very close to the electric engine, which represents a source of electromagnetic fields (EMF). Previous studies demonstrated a decrease in melatonin production in adults and animals exposed to EMF. To assess melatonin production in a group of newborns exposed to EMF, and to evaluate whether removing the babies from the source of MF can affect melatonin production. We have recruited 28 babies (study group), who had spent at least 48h in incubator where we had previously assessed the presence of significant EMF. We have measured their mean 6-hydroxy-melatonin-sulfate (6OHMS) urine excretion at the end of their permanence in the incubators, and compared it with their mean 6OHMS excretion after having been put in cribs, where EMF are below the detectable limit (< 0.1mG). We have also measured urine 6OHMS twice, with an interval of 48h, in a control group of 27 babies who were not exposed to EMF during both samples. Mean 6OHMS/cr values were respectively 5.34±4.6 and 7.68±5.1ng/mg (p=0.026) when babies were exposed to EMF in incubators, and after having been put in the crib. In the control group, mean 6OHMS/cr values in the first and in the second sample were respectively 5.91±5.41 vs 6.17±3.94ng/mg (p=0.679). The transitory increase in melatonin production soon after removing newborns from incubators demonstrates a possible influence of EMF on melatonin production in newborns. Further studies are needed to confirm these data.


6. N Soderqvist F et al, (March 2012) Use of wireless phones and the risk of salivary gland tumours: a case-control study, Eur J Cancer Prev. 2012 Mar 17. [Epub ahead of print] [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]
 

The last decades of increasing use of wireless phones, including mobile as well as cordless desktop phones, have led to concerns about the potential carcinogenic effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Among the most exposed areas of the body when the phone is used for talking are the salivary glands, mainly the parotid gland, located in front of the ear. The objective of this case-control study was to assess whether the use of wireless phones is associated with an increased risk of tumour at this site. Sixty-nine patients with salivary gland tumours (63 with a parotid gland tumour) and 262 randomly recruited controls were included. Unconditional logistic regression - adjusted for age at diagnosis, sex, year of diagnosis and socioeconomic index - was used to produce odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. The use of wireless phones was not associated with an overall increased risk of salivary gland tumours, odds ratio 0.8, 95% confidence interval 0.4-1.5. Neither was there an increased risk for the different phone types when calculated separately nor was there an increased risk for different latencies or when cumulative use was divided into three groups (1-1000, 1001-2000 and >2000 h). The overall results were similar for the risk of parotid gland tumours. In conclusion, our data add to the evidence against there being an increased risk for parotid gland tumours associated with light-to-moderate use of wireless phones and for less than 10 years of use but offers little information on risk related to more prolonged and/or heavy use.The last decades of increasing use of wireless phones, including mobile as well as cordless desktop phones, have led to concerns about the potential carcinogenic effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Among the most exposed areas of the body when the phone is used for talking are the salivary glands, mainly the parotid gland, located in front of the ear. The objective of this case-control study was to assess whether the use of wireless phones is associated with an increased risk of tumour at this site. Sixty-nine patients with salivary gland tumours (63 with a parotid gland tumour) and 262 randomly recruited controls were included. Unconditional logistic regression - adjusted for age at diagnosis, sex, year of diagnosis and socioeconomic index - was used to produce odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. The use of wireless phones was not associated with an overall increased risk of salivary gland tumours, odds ratio 0.8, 95% confidence interval 0.4-1.5. Neither was there an increased risk for the different phone types when calculated separately nor was there an increased risk for different latencies or when cumulative use was divided into three groups (1-1000, 1001-2000 and >2000 h). The overall results were similar for the risk of parotid gland tumours. In conclusion, our data add to the evidence against there being an increased risk for parotid gland tumours associated with light-to-moderate use of wireless phones and for less than 10 years of use but offers little information on risk related to more prolonged and/or heavy use.


7. P Ciejka E et al, (December 2011) Effects of extremely low frequency magnetic field on oxidative balance in brain of rats, J Physiol Pharmacol. 2011 Dec;62(6):657-61 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]
 

Extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) may result in oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation with an ultimate effect on a number of systemic disturbances and cell death. The aim of the study is to assess the effect of ELF-MF parameters most frequently used in magnetotherapy on reactive oxygen species generation (ROS) in brain tissue of experimental animals depending on the time of exposure to this field. The research material included adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 3-4 months. The animals were divided into 3 groups: I - control (shame) group; II - exposed to the following parameters of the magnetic field: 7 mT, 40 Hz, 30 min/day, 10 days; III - exposed to the ELF-MF parameters of 7 mT, 40 Hz, 60 min/day, 10 days. The selected parameters of oxidative stress: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), total free sulphydryl groups (-SH groups) and protein in brain homogenates were measured after the exposure of rats to the magnetic field. ELF-MF parameters of 7 mT, 40 Hz, 30 min/day for 10 days caused a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and insignificant increase in H(2)O(2) and free -SH groups. The same ELF-MF parameters but applied for 60 min/day caused a significant increase in free -SH groups and protein concentration in the brain homogenates indicating the adaptive mechanism. The study has shown that ELF-MF applied for 30 min/day for 10 days can affect free radical generation in the brain. Prolongation of the exposure to ELF-MF (60/min/day) caused adaptation to this field. The effect of ELF-MF irradiation on oxidative stress parameters depends on the time of animal exposure to magnetic field.


8. N Poulletier de Gannes F et al, (February 2012) Effect of In Utero Wi-Fi Exposure on the Pre- and Postnatal Development of Rats, Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol. 2012 Feb 6. doi: 10.1002/bdrb.20346. [Epub ahead of print] [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]
 

The increase in exposure to the Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) wireless communication signal has raised public health concerns especially for young people. Animal studies looking at the effects of early life and prenatal exposure to this source of electromagnetic fields, in the radiofrequency (RF) range, on development and behavior have been considered as high priority research needs by the World Health Organization. For the first time, our study assessed the effects of in utero exposure to a 2450 MHz Wi-Fi signal (2 hr/day, 6 days/week for 18 days) on pregnant rats and their pups. Three levels in terms of whole-body specific absorption rate were used: 0.08, 0.4, and 4 W/kg. The prenatal study on fetuses delivered by caesarean (P20) concerned five females/group. The dams and their offspring were observed for 28 days after delivery (15 females/group). For all test conditions, no abnormalities were noted in the pregnant rats and no significant signs of toxicity were observed in the pre- and postnatal development of the pups, even at the highest level of 4 W/kg. In the present study, no teratogenic effect of repeated exposures to the Wi-Fi wireless communication signal was demonstrated even at the highest level of 4 W/kg. The results from this screening study aimed at investigating Wi-Fi effects, strengthen the previous conclusions that teratology and development studies have not detected any noxious effects of exposures to mobile telephony-related RF fields at exposure levels below standard limits.


9. P Trivino Pardo JC et al, (March 2012) Microwave electromagnetic field regulates gene expression in T-lymphoblastoid leukemia CCRF-CEM cell line exposed to 900 MHz, Electromagn Biol Med. 2012 Mar;31(1):1-18 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]
 

Electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields are ubiquitous in our society, and concerns have been expressed regarding possible adverse effects of these exposures. Research on Extremely Low-Frequency (ELF) magnetic fields has been performed for more than two decades, and the methodology and quality of studies have improved over time. Studies have consistently shown increased risk for childhood leukemia associated with ELF magnetic fields. There are still inadequate data for other outcomes. More recently, focus has shifted toward Radio Frequencies (RF) exposures from mobile telephony. There are no persuasive data suggesting a health risk, but this research field is still immature with regard to the quantity and quality of available data. This technology is constantly changing and there is a need for continued research on this issue. To investigate whether exposure to high-frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) could induce adverse health effects, we cultured acute T-lymphoblastoid leukemia cells (CCRF-CEM) in the presence of 900 MHz MW-EMF generated by a transverse electromagnetic (TEM) cell at short and long exposure times. We evaluated the effect of high-frequency EMF on gene expression and we identified functional pathways influenced by 900 MHz MW-EMF exposure.


10. N Huwiler SG et al, (February 2012) Genome-wide transcription analysis of Escherichia coli in response to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields, Bioelectromagnetics. 2012 Feb 13. doi: 10.1002/bem.21709. [Epub ahead of print] [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]
 

The widespread use of electricity raises the question of whether or not 50?Hz (power line frequency in Europe) magnetic fields (MFs) affect organisms. We investigated the transcription of Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 in response to extremely low-frequency (ELF) MFs. Fields generated by three signal types (sinusoidal continuous, sinusoidal intermittent, and power line intermittent; all at 50 Hz, 1 mT) were applied and gene expression was monitored at the transcript level using an Affymetrix whole-genome microarray. Bacterial cells were grown continuously in a chemostat (dilution rate D = 0.4 h(-1) ) fed with glucose-limited minimal medium and exposed to 50 Hz MFs with a homogenous flux density of 1 mT. For all three types of MFs investigated, neither bacterial growth (determined using optical density) nor culturable counts were affected. Likewise, no statistically significant change (fold-change > 2, P < 0.01) in the expression of 4,358 genes and 714 intergenic regions represented on the gene chip was detected after MF exposure for 2.5 h (1.4 generations) or 15 h (8.7 generations). Moreover, short-term exposure (8 min) to the sinusoidal continuous and power line intermittent signal neither affected bacterial growth nor showed evidence for reliable changes in transcription. In conclusion, our experiments did not indicate that the different tested MFs (50 Hz, 1 mT) affected the transcription of E. coli.


11. P Jiang B et al, (2012) Adaptive Response in Mice Exposed to 900 MHz Radiofrequency Fields: Primary DNA Damage, PLoS One. 2012;7(2):e32040. Epub 2012 Feb 28 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]
 

The phenomenon of adaptive response (AR) in animal and human cells exposed to ionizing radiation is well documented in scientific literature. We have examined whether such AR could be induced in mice exposed to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields (RF) used for wireless communications. Mice were pre-exposed to 900 MHz RF at 120 µW/cm(2) power density for 4 hours/day for 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days and then subjected to an acute dose of 3 Gy γ-radiation. The primary DNA damage in the form of alkali labile base damage and single strand breaks in the DNA of peripheral blood leukocytes was determined using the alkaline comet assay. The results indicated that the extent of damage in mice which were pre-exposed to RF for 1 day and then subjected to γ-radiation was similar and not significantly different from those exposed to γ-radiation alone. However, mice which were pre-exposed to RF for 3, 5, 7 and 14 days showed progressively decreased damage and was significantly different from those exposed to γ-radiation alone. Thus, the data indicated that RF pre-exposure is capable of inducing AR and suggested that the pre-exposure for more than 4 hours for 1 day is necessary to elicit such AR.


12. P Calabro E et al, (February 2012) Modulation of heat shock protein response in SH-SY5Y by mobile phone microwaves, World J Biol Chem. 2012 Feb 26;3(2):34-40 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]
 

To investigate putative biological damage caused by GSM mobile phone frequencies by assessing electromagnetic fields during mobile phone working. Neuron-like cells, obtained by retinoic-acid-induced differentiation of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, were exposed for 2 h and 4 h to microwaves at 1800 MHz frequency bands. Cell stress response was evaluated by MTT assay as well as changes in the heat shock protein expression (Hsp20, Hsp27 and Hsp70) and caspase-3 activity levels, as biomarkers of apoptotic pathway. Under our experimental conditions, neither cell viability nor Hsp27 expression nor caspase-3 activity was significantly changed. Interestingly, a significant decrease in Hsp20 expression was observed at both times of exposure, whereas Hsp70 levels were significantly increased only after 4 h exposure. The modulation of the expression of Hsps in neuronal cells can be an early response to radiofrequency microwaves.


13. P Foroozandeh E et al, (March 2012) Toxic effects of 50 Hz electromagnetic field on memory consolidation in male and female mice, Toxicol Ind Health. 2012 Mar 7. [Epub ahead of print] [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]
 

In this study, the effect of exposure to an 8 mT, 50 Hz extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF EMF) on memory consolidation of adult male and female mice was studied. For this purpose male and female mice were randomly distributed among six groups (n = 10 in each group). Using passive avoidance task, despite its natural tendency, mouse learns to stay on a small platform to avoidant electric shock. Immediately after the learning session, laboratory animals in the experimental groups were placed in an 8 mT, 50 Hz sinusoidal EMF for 4 h. The second male and female groups were sham exposed (exposure device off) and the third groups were considered as the controls. Twenty-four hours after the learning session, the animals were placed on small platform again and step-down latency was measured as the memory consolidation index. Significant (p < 0.05) decreases were determined among groups in memory function and results showed that exposure to an 8 mT, 50 Hz EMF for 4 h has devastating effects on memory consolidation in male and female mice.


14. P Trosic I et al, (December 2011) Effect of electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation on the rats' brain, liver and kidney cells measured by comet assay, Coll Antropol. 2011 Dec;35(4):1259-64 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]
 

The goal of study was to evaluate DNA damage in rat's renal, liver and brain cells after in vivo exposure to radiofrequency/microwave (Rf/Mw) radiation of cellular phone frequencies range. To determine DNA damage, a single cell gel electrophoresis/comet assay was used. Wistar rats (male, 12 week old, approximate body weight 350 g) (N = 9) were exposed to the carrier frequency of 915 MHz with Global System Mobile signal modulation (GSM), power density of 2.4 W/m2, whole body average specific absorption rate SAR of 0.6 W/kg. The animals were irradiated for one hour/day, seven days/week during two weeks period. The exposure set-up was Gigahertz Transversal Electromagnetic Mode Cell (GTEM--cell). Sham irradiated controls (N = 9) were apart of the study. The body temperature was measured before and after exposure. There were no differences in temperature in between control and treated animals. Comet assay parameters such as the tail length and tail intensity were evaluated. In comparison with tail length in controls (13.5 +/- 0.7 microm), the tail was slightly elongated in brain cells of irradiated animals (14.0 +/- 0.3 microm). The tail length obtained for liver (14.5 +/- 0.3 microm) and kidney (13.9 +/- 0.5 microm) homogenates notably differs in comparison with matched sham controls (13.6 +/- 0.3 microm) and (12.9 +/- 0.9 microm). Differences in tail intensity between control and exposed animals were not significant. The results of this study suggest that, under the experimental conditions applied, repeated 915 MHz irradiation could be a cause of DNA breaks in renal and liver cells, but not affect the cell genome at the higher extent compared to the basal damage.


15. N Augner C et al, (March 2012) Acute effects of electromagnetic fields emitted by GSM mobile phones on subjective well-being and physiological reactions: A meta-analysis, Sci Total Environ. 2012 Mar 13. [Epub ahead of print] [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]
 

The potential effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) emitted by GSM mobile phones on subjective symptoms, well-being and physiological parameters have been investigated in many studies. However, the results have been ambiguous. The current meta-analysis aims to clarify whether RF-EMF have an influence on well-being in self-reported sensitive persons, as well as in non-sensitive people. A literature search revealed 17 studies including 1174 participants. The single effects for various subjective and objective outcomes were meta-analytically combined to yield a single population parameter. Dependant variables were subjective (e.g. headaches) and objective parameters (e.g. heart rate variability) of well-being. The results show no significant impact of short-term RF-EMF exposure on any parameter. Future research should focus on the possible effects of long-term exposure.


16. - Kim DW et al, (March 2012) Assessment of daily exposure of endodontic personnel to extremely low frequency magnetic fields, Int Endod J. 2012 Mar 19. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2591.2012.02030.x. [Epub ahead of print] [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]
 

To measure daily exposure levels to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF MFs) in endodontic clinics. In total, 10 subjects (five endodontic trainees, five hygienists) participated. Each volunteer wore a 60-Hz MF measurement device on the left upper arm during working hours. Measurements were taken continuously throughout the working day except at lunch time. Separate measurements were taken for specific items of equipment at several distances. The average MF exposure for the 10 personnel was 0.03 ± 0.04 micro-Tesla (µT) (range, 0.01-6.4 µT). The average MF exposure of endodontic personnel was lower than that of other hospital personnel according to the literature. Furthermore, all monitored exposure levels were well below the maximum acute exposure level, 500 µT, recommended by the International Committee on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection for the protection of workers against ELF MFs. However, relatively high levels of exposure occurred in an operating room and X-ray room, presumably as a result of the use of surgical equipment such as microscopes and monitors, various motors and power cables of X-ray machines with large current flows. The total average MF exposure level of 0.03 µT was lower than the typical background level at home. Although high levels of exposure were measured in an operating room and X-ray room, the MF exposure level to dental personnel was minimal during routine endodontic clinical work.


17. P Teepen JC, van Dijck JA, (March 2012) Impact of high electromagnetic field levels on childhood leukaemia incidence, Int J Cancer. 2012 Mar 21. doi: 10.1002/ijc.27542. [Epub ahead of print] [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]
 

The increasing exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) has raised concern, as increased exposure may result in an increased risk of childhood leukaemia (CL). Besides a short introduction of CL and EMF, this paper gives an evaluation of the evidence of a causal relation between EMF and CL by critically appraising the epidemiological and biological evidence. Also, the potential impact is estimated by the population attributable risk. The etiology of CL is largely unknown, but is probably multifactorial. EMF may be one of the environmental exposures involved. Three pooled analyses of case-control studies showed a 1.4-1.7 fold increased CL risk for extremely low frequency EMF (ELF-EMF) exposure levels above 0.3 microtesla. Several biases may have played a role in these studies, but are unlikely to fully explain the increased risk. For effects of radio frequency ELF evidence is lacking. None of the proposed biological mechanisms by which ELF-EMF might cause CL have been confirmed. The estimated overall population attributable risks was 1.9%, with the highest estimates in Northern America and Brazil (4.2% and 4.1% respectively). The potential impact of EMF exposure on public health is probably limited, although in some countries exposure might be relatively high and thus might have a more substantial impact. We recommend nationwide surveys in order to gain more insight into the contemporary exposure levels among children. Reducing exposure from power lines near densely populated areas and schools is advised. Future epidemiological studies should focus on limiting bias.


18. P Vecchio F et al, (February 2012) Mobile phone emission increases inter-hemispheric functional coupling of electroencephalographic alpha rhythms in epileptic patients, Int J Psychophysiol. 2012 Feb 16. [Epub ahead of print] [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]
 

It has been reported that GSM electromagnetic fields (GSM-EMFs) of mobile phones modulate - after a prolonged exposure - inter-hemispheric synchronization of temporal and frontal resting electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms in normal young and elderly subjects (Vecchio et al., 2007, 2010). Here we tested the hypothesis that this can be even more evident in epileptic patients, who typically suffer from abnormal mechanisms governing synchronization of rhythmic firing of cortical neurons. Eyes-closed resting EEG data were recorded in ten patients affected by focal epilepsy in real and sham exposure conditions. These data were compared with those obtained from 15 age-matched normal subjects of the previous reference studies. The GSM device was turned on (45min) in the "GSM" condition and was turned off (45min) in the other condition ("sham"). The mobile phone was always positioned on the left side in both patients and control subjects. Spectral coherence evaluated the inter-hemispheric synchronization of EEG rhythms at the following frequency bands: delta (about 2-4Hz), theta (about 4-6Hz), alpha1 (about 6-8Hz), alpha2 (about 8-10Hz), and alpha3 (about 10-12Hz). The effects on the patients were investigated comparing the inter-hemispheric EEG coherence in the epileptic patients with the control group of subjects evaluated in the previous reference studies. Compared with the control subjects, epileptic patients showed a statistically significant higher inter-hemispheric coherence of temporal and frontal alpha rhythms (about 8-12Hz) in the GSM than "Sham" condition. These results suggest that GSM-EMFs of mobile phone may affect inter-hemispheric synchronization of the dominant (alpha) EEG rhythms in epileptic patients. If confirmed by future studies on a larger group of epilepsy patients, the modulation of the inter-hemispheric alpha coherence due to the GSM-EMFs could have clinical implications and be related to changes in cognitive-motor function.


19. P Sarapultseva EI, Igolkina JV, (August 2011) Experimental Study of Relationship between Biological Hazards of Low-Dose Radiofrequency Exposure and Energy Flow Density in Spirostomum Ambiguum Infusoria Exposed at a Mobile Connection Frequency (1 GHz), Bull Exp Biol Med. 2011 Aug;151(4):477-80 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]
 

Radiofrequency exposure at the mobile connection frequency (1 GHz) at different energy flow densities, 5 µW/cm(2)(2-fold below the maximum permissible level) and 50 µW/cm(2)(5-fold surpassing this level), caused a reduction of motor activity in unicellular hydrobionts Spirostomum ambiguum Ehrbg infusoria. In all cases, the effect was similar by the intensity and developed in a jump-wise manner after exposure of a certain duration, after which did not increase with prolongation of the exposure. The duration of radiofrequency exposure safe for the object varied significantly: 8-9 h and 10 min at 5 and 50 µW, respectively. These innovation data on harmful biological effects of very low radiofrequency exposure (5 µW/cm(2)), the threshold form of biological reaction, presence of "safe" periods of exposure, and the data demonstrating a clear-cut relationship between these periods and energy flow density are interesting from theoretical viewpoint and in connection with the problem of evaluating permissible levels of radiofrequency exposure of biological objects.