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29/04/2010 - April 2010 - Science Update

The following is a quick summary of another fifteen papers that have come out over the last few months related to effects of electromagnetic radiation. Some of the papers are notable papers that have been published very recently, others are papers that were published a few months ago that have not yet made it to one of the Science Updates. From this point onwards, to catch up with the large quantity of papers being published, we will be simply posting the abstract, with our comments interspersed in italicised bold where appropriate.

1. N Lee HJ et al, (November 2009) Lack of teratogenicity after combined exposure of pregnant mice to CDMA and WCDMA radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, Radiat Res. 2009 Nov;172(5):648-52 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

Concern about the possible adverse effects of radiofrequency (RF)-field exposure on public health has increased because of the extensive use of wireless mobile phones and other telecommunication devices in daily life. The murine fetus is a very sensitive indicator of the effects of stress or stimuli in the environment. Therefore, we investigated the teratogenic effects of multi-signal radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMFs) on mouse fetuses. Pregnant mice were simultaneously exposed to two types of RF signals, single code division multiple access (CDMA) and wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA). Mice received two 45-min RF-field exposures, separated by a 15-min interval, daily throughout the entire gestation period. The whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) of CDMA or WCDMA was 2.0 W/kg. The animals were killed humanely on the 18th day of gestation and fetuses were examined for mortality, growth retardation, changes in head size and other morphological abnormalities. From the results, we report for the first time that simultaneous experimental exposure to CDMA and WCDMA RF EMFs did not cause any observable adverse effects on mouse fetuses. The comment "The murine fetus is a very sensitive indicator of the effects of stress or stimuli in the environment. Therefore..." gives an indication that if there are stresses from the environment, it should have been seen in these foetus'. This is however an assumption on the part of the authors that sidesteps the fact that, without a mechanism, we cannot be sure of what causes the interactions we are trying to observe, and there is no way of necessarily identifying a model that is inherently "more likely" than another to see an effect. This experiment should be seen as a single experiment in a novel experimental environment, that nevertheless produced a single genuine null result.

2. - Tomitsch J et al, (April 2010) Survey of electromagnetic field exposure in bedrooms of residences in lower Austria, Bioelectromagnetics. 2010 Apr;31(3):200-8 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

Previous investigations of exposure to electric, magnetic, or electromagnetic fields (EMF) in households were either about electricity supply EMFs or radio frequency EMFs (RF-EMFs). We report results from spot measurements at the bedside that comprise electrostatic fields, extremely low-frequency electric fields (ELF-EFs), extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs), and RF-EMFs. Measurements were taken in 226 households throughout Lower Austria. In addition, effects of simple reduction measures (e.g., removal of clock radios or increasing their distance from the bed, turning off Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunication (DECT) telephone base stations) were assessed. All measurements were well below International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guideline levels. Average night-time ELF-MFs (long-term measurement from 10 pm to 6 am, geometric mean over households) above 100 nT were obtained in 2.3%, and RF-EMFs above 1000 microW/m(2) (0.6 V/m) in 7.1% of households. Highest ELF-EFs were primarily due to lamps beside the bed (max = 166 V/m), and highest ELF-MFs because of transformers of devices (max = 1030 nT) or high current of power lines (max = 380 nT). The highest values of RF-EMFs were caused by DECT telephone base stations (max = 28979 microW/m(2)) and mobile phone base stations (max = 4872 microW/m(2)) (1.3 and 3.3 V/m respectively). Simple reduction measures resulted in an average decrease of 23 nT for ELF-MFs, 23 V/m for ELF-EFs, and 246 microW/m(2) for RF-EMFs. A small but statistically significant correlation between ELF-MF exposure and overall RF-EMF levels of R = 0.16 (P = 0.008) was computed that was independent of type (flat, single family) and location (urban, rural) of houses.

3. P Desai NR et al, (October 2009) Pathophysiology of cell phone radiation: oxidative stress and carcinogenesis with focus on male reproductive system, Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2009 Oct 22;7:114 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

Hazardous health effects stemming from exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW) emitted from cell phones have been reported in the literature. However, the cellular target of RF-EMW is still controversial. This review identifies the plasma membrane as a target of RF-EMW. In addition, the effects of RF-EMW on plasma membrane structures (i.e. NADH oxidase, phosphatidylserine, ornithine decarboxylase) and voltage-gated calcium channels are discussed. We explore the disturbance in reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism caused by RF-EMW and delineate NADH oxidase mediated ROS formation as playing a central role in oxidative stress (OS) due to cell phone radiation (with a focus on the male reproductive system). This review also addresses: 1) the controversial effects of RF-EMW on mammalian cells and sperm DNA as well as its effect on apoptosis, 2) epidemiological, in vivo animal and in vitro studies on the effect of RF-EMW on male reproductive system, and 3) finally, exposure assessment and dosimetry by computational biomodeling. Conclusions: "We have reviewed the literature to better understand the effects of cell phone radiation on human health, especially on fertility and in relation to cancer. Commercially available cellular phones might affect cell function via non-thermal effects. We hypothesized that the plasma membrane might be the target of cell phone radiation. RF-EMW can increase ROS formation by increasing the activity of plasma membrane NADH oxidase. Prolonged exposure to RF-EMW can also cause DNA damage (by prolonged OS), which may accelerates neuronal and spermatozoal cell death and promote neurodegenerative processes as well as promote brain and testicular carcinogenesis. Any tumor promoting effects of RF-EMW might be due to the effect it has on PKC, ODC, intra cellular calcium spikes and stimulation of stress kinase. Stimulation of plasma membrane NADH oxidase might play central role in above mentioned effects. OS and changes in PKC activity might lead to the RF-EMW related infertility observed in numerous studies. Hence, RF-EMW from commercially available cell phones might affect the fertilizing potential of spermatozoa. Therefore, the SAR limit (maximum acceptable exposure limit) should be lowered for cellular phones. However, more studies are necessary to provide definitive evidence against cell phone radiation, which can be provided by in vitro studies combined with computational biomodeling."

4. P Perez-Castejon C et al, (December 2009) Exposure to ELF-pulse modulated X band microwaves increases in vitro human astrocytoma cell proliferation, Histol Histopathol. 2009 Dec;24(12):1551-61 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

Common concern about the biological effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) is increasing with the expansion of X-band microwaves (MW). The purpose of our work was to determine whether exposure to MW pulses in this range can induce toxic effects on human astrocytoma cells. Cultured astrocytoma cells (Clonetics line 1321N1) were submitted to 9.6 GHz carrier, 90% amplitude modulated by extremely low frequency (ELF)-EMF pulses inside a Gigahertz Transversal Electromagnetic Mode cell (GTEM-cell). Astrocytoma cultures were maintained inside a GTEM-incubator in standard culture conditions at 37+/-0.1 degrees C, 5% CO2, in a humidified atmosphere. Two experimental conditions were applied with field parameters respectively of: PW 100-120 ns; PRF 100-800 Hz; PRI 10-1.25 ms; power 0.34-0.60 mW; electric field strength 1.25-1.64 V/m; magnetic field peak amplitude 41.4-54.6 microOe. SAR was calculated to be 4.0 x 10-4 W/Kg (0.0004 W/Kg is a low SAR! For reference, ICNIRP whole body exposure limit is 0.08 W/kg, so this is 1/200th of ICNIRP's absorbed dose guidance level). Astrocytoma samples were grown in a standard incubator. Reaching 70-80% confluence, cells were transferred to a GTEM-incubator. Experimental procedure included exposed human astrocytoma cells to MW for 15, 30, 60 min and 24 h and unexposed sham-control samples. Double blind method was applied. Our results showed that cytoskeleton proteins, cell morphology and viability were not modified. Statistically significant results showed increased cell proliferation rate under 24h MW exposure. Hsp-70 and Bcl-2 antiapoptotic proteins were observed in control and treated samples, while an increased expression of connexin 43 proteins was found in exposed samples. The implication of these results on increased proliferation is the subject of our current research. Certainly, enhanced cell proliferation could have implications with regards to cancer promotion, and are clear evidence of a non-thermal biological mechanism.

5. - Burgi A et al, (April 2010) A model for radiofrequency electromagnetic field predictions at outdoor and indoor locations in the context of epidemiological research, Bioelectromagnetics. 2010 Apr;31(3):226-36 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

We present a geospatial model to predict the radiofrequency electromagnetic field from fixed site transmitters for use in epidemiological exposure assessment. The proposed model extends an existing model toward the prediction of indoor exposure, that is, at the homes of potential study participants. The model is based on accurate operation parameters of all stationary transmitters of mobile communication base stations, and radio broadcast and television transmitters for an extended urban and suburban region in the Basel area (Switzerland). The model was evaluated by calculating Spearman rank correlations and weighted Cohen's kappa (kappa) statistics between the model predictions and measurements obtained at street level, in the homes of volunteers, and in front of the windows of these homes. The correlation coefficients of the numerical predictions with street level measurements were 0.64, with indoor measurements 0.66, and with window measurements 0.67. The kappa coefficients were 0.48 (95%-confidence interval: 0.35-0.61) for street level measurements, 0.44 (95%-CI: 0.32-0.57) for indoor measurements, and 0.53 (95%-CI: 0.42-0.65) for window measurements. Although the modeling of shielding effects by walls and roofs requires considerable simplifications of a complex environment, we found a comparable accuracy of the model for indoor and outdoor points.

6. P Zhijian C et al, (January 2010) Impact of 1.8-GHz radiofrequency radiation (RFR) on DNA damage and repair induced by doxorubicin in human B-cell lymphoblastoid cells, Mutat Res. 2010 Jan;695(1-2):16-21. Epub 2009 Oct 13 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

In the present in vitro study, a comet assay was used to determine whether 1.8-GHz radiofrequency radiation (RFR, SAR of 2W/kg) can influence DNA repair in human B-cell lymphoblastoid cells exposed to doxorubicin (DOX) at the doses of 0microg/ml, 0.05microg/ml, 0.075microg/ml, 0.10microg/ml, 0.15microg/ml and 0.20microg/ml. The combinative exposures to RFR with DOX were divided into five categories. DNA damage was detected at 0h, 6h, 12h, 18h and 24h after exposure to DOX via the comet assay, and the percent of DNA in the tail (% tail DNA) served as the indicator of DNA damage. The results demonstrated that (1) RFR could not directly induce DNA damage of human B-cell lymphoblastoid cells; (2) DOX could significantly induce DNA damage of human B-cell lymphoblastoid cells with the dose-effect relationship, and there were special repair characteristics of DNA damage induced by DOX; (3) E-E-E type (exposure to RFR for 2h, then simultaneous exposure to RFR and DOX, and exposure to RFR for 6h, 12h, 18h and 24h after exposure to DOX) combinative exposure could obviously influence DNA repair at 6h and 12h after exposure to DOX for four DOX doses (0.075microg/ml, 0.10microg/ml, 0.15microg/ml and 0.20microg/ml) in human B-cell lymphoblastoid cells. In this paper, radiofrequency electromagnetic fields were not found to damage DNA in lympblastoid cell lines. However, the presence of the fields signficantly inhibited the repair of DNA damage caused by other agents.

7. - Ruiz-Gomez MJ, Martinez-Morillo M, (2009) Electromagnetic fields and the induction of DNA strand breaks, Electromagn Biol Med. 2009;28(2):201-14 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified the extremely low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) as "possible carcinogenic" based on the reported effects. The purpose of this work is to review and compare the recent findings related to the induction of DNA strand breaks (DNA-SB) by magnetic field (MF) exposure. We found 29 studies (genotoxic and epigenetic) about the induction of DNA-SB by MF. 50% showed effect of MF and 50% showed no DNA-SB. Nevertheless, considering only genotoxic or only epigenetic studies, 37.5% and 69.2% found induction of DNA-SB by MF, respectively. In relation to these data it seems that MF could act as a co-inductor of DNA damage rather than as a genotoxic agent per se. Nevertheless, the published results, in some cases conflicting with negative findings, do not facilitate to obtain a common consensus about MF effects and biophysical interaction mechanisms. This review supports the consistent findings of Jukka Juutilainen [Janary 2006, July 2006, 2008], that ELF magnetic fields act as a promoter of other carcinogens and health affecting agents, rather than being the cause itself. This does not in any way dismiss the potential severity of the associations being found - In many ways, a universal promoter would have a much larger impact on public health than an individual causal agent.

8. P Dundar B et al, (August 2009) The effect of the prenatal and post-natal long-term exposure to 50 Hz electric field on growth, pubertal development and IGF-1 levels in female Wistar rats, Toxicol Ind Health. 2009 Aug;25(7):479-87 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

To investigate prenatal and post-natal effects of extremely low frequency (ELF) electric field (EF) on growth and pubertal development, pregnant Wistar rats were randomly distributed among three groups. The pregnant rats of the prenatal group were exposed to 24-hour EF at 50 Hz EF 10 kV/min during pregnancy and their subsequent randomly selected female pups continued to be exposed until puberty. The post-natal group was unexposed to EF during pregnancy, but randomly selected female pups from this group were exposed to EF between delivery and puberty at the same doses and duration as the prenatal group. The third group was a sham-exposed group. The mean birth weight and weight gain of the pups during study period were found significantly reduced in prenatal group than post-natal and sham-exposed groups (p < 0.001). No difference could be found among the three groups for body weight at puberty (p > 0.05). The mean age at vaginal opening and estrous were significantly higher at prenatal group than post-natal and sham-exposed groups (p < 0.001). Serum insulin-like growth hormone-1 (IGF-1) levels were found significantly reduced in prenatal exposure group compared with the other two groups (p < 0.001). There was no difference for birth weight, weight gain, the mean age at vaginal opening and estrous and IGF-1 levels between post-natal and sham-exposed groups (p > 0.05). There was also no difference for FSH, LH and E2 levels at puberty among the three groups (p > 0.05). Histological examination revealed that both the prenatal and post-natal groups had the evidence of tissue damage on hypothalamus, pituitary gland and ovaries. In conclusion, early beginning of prenatal exposure of rats to 24 hours 50 Hz EF at 10 kV/m until puberty without magnetic field (MF) resulted in growth restriction, delayed puberty and reduced IGF-1 levels in female Wistar rats. These effects probably associated with direct toxic effects of EF on target organs. Post-natal exposure to EF at similar doses and duration seems to be less harmful on target organs. Post-natal exposure to EF at similar doses and duration seems to be less harmful.

9. P Patruno A et al, (October 2009) Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields modulate expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, endothelial nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in the human keratinocyte cell line HaCat: potential therapeutic effects in wound healing, Br J Dermatol. 2010 Feb 1;162(2):258-66. Epub 2009 Oct 3 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

BACKGROUND: Extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) are known to produce a variety of biological effects. Clinical studies are ongoing using EMF in healing of bone fractures and skin wounds. However, little is known about the mechanisms of action of ELF-EMF. Several studies have demonstrated that expression and regulation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) are vital for wound healing; however, no reports have demonstrated a direct action of ELF-EMF in the modulation of these inflammatory molecules in human keratinocytes. OBJECTIVES: The present study analysed the effect of ELF-EMF on the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT in order to assess the mechanisms of action of ELF-EMF and to provide further support for their therapeutic use in wound healing. METHODS: Exposed HaCaT cells were compared with unexposed control cells. At different exposure times, expression of inducible NOS (iNOS), endothelial NOS (eNOS) and COX-2 was evaluated by Western blot analysis. Modulation of iNOS and eNOS was monitored by evaluation of NOS activities, production of nitric oxide (NO) and O(2)(-) and expression of activator protein 1 (AP-1). In addition, catalase activity and prostaglandin (PG) E(2) production were determined. Effects of ELF-EMF on cell growth and viability were monitored. RESULTS: The exposure of HaCaT cells to ELF-EMF increased iNOS and eNOS expression levels. These ELF-EMF-dependent increased expression levels were paralled by increased NOS activities, and increased NO production. In addition, higher levels of AP-1 expression as well as a higher cell proliferation rate were associated with ELF-EMF exposure. In contrast, ELF-EMF decreased COX-2 expression, PGE(2) production, catalase activity and O(2)(-) production. CONCLUSIONS: Mediators of inflammation, such as reactive nitrogen and PGE(2), and keratinocyte proliferation are critical for the tissue regenerative processes. The ability of ELF-EMF to upmodulate NOS activities, thus nitrogen intermediates, as well as cell proliferation, and to downregulate COX-2 expression and the downstream intermediate PGE(2), highlights the potential therapeutic role of ELF-EMF in wound healing processes.

10. P Otitoloju AA et al, (October 2009) Preliminary study on the induction of sperm head abnormalities in mice, Mus musculus, exposed to radiofrequency radiations from global system for mobile communication base stations, Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2010 Jan;84(1):51-4. Epub 2009 Oct 9 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

The exposure of male mice to radiofrequency radiations from mobile phone (GSM) base stations at a workplace complex and residential quarters caused 39.78 and 46.03%, respectively, in sperm head abnormalities compared to 2.13% in control group. Statistical analysis of sperm head abnormality score showed that there was a significant (p < 0.05) difference in occurrence of sperm head abnormalities in test animals. The major abnormalities observed were knobbed hook, pin-head and banana-shaped sperm head. The occurrence of the sperm head abnormalities was also found to be dose dependent. The implications of the observed increase occurrence of sperm head abnormalities on the reproductive health of humans living in close proximity to GSM base stations were discussed. Many of the studies assessing sperm have been carried out as epidemiological studies on human mobile phone users, although there have been some in vitro studies that have also found significant sperm damage. However, this study is finding similar findings (and with a dose-response relationship) in mice from GSM radiation. There is a caveat that this is not an author, laboratory, university, or journal with a long track record of EMF research, but even so with the consistency and strength of the findings so far, male fertility and sperm quality seems to be a highly valuable area of further research into the mechanisms by which RF energy can impact biological tissue in an adverse manner.

11. P Xu S et al, (October 2009) Exposure to 1800 MHz radiofrequency radiation induces oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA in primary cultured neurons, Brain Res. 2010 Jan 22;1311:189-96. Epub 2009 Oct 30 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

Increasing evidence indicates that oxidative stress may be involved in the adverse effects of radiofrequency (RF) radiation on the brain. Because mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) defects are closely associated with various nervous system diseases and mtDNA is particularly susceptible to oxidative stress, the purpose of this study was to determine whether radiofrequency radiation can cause oxidative damage to mtDNA. In this study, we exposed primary cultured cortical neurons to pulsed RF electromagnetic fields at a frequency of 1800 MHz modulated by 217 Hz at an average special absorption rate (SAR) of 2 W/kg. At 24 h after exposure, we found that RF radiation induced a significant increase in the levels of 8-hydroxyguanine (8-OHdG), a common biomarker of DNA oxidative damage, in the mitochondria of neurons. Concomitant with this finding, the copy number of mtDNA and the levels of mitochondrial RNA (mtRNA) transcripts showed an obvious reduction after RF exposure. Each of these mtDNA disturbances could be reversed by pretreatment with melatonin, which is known to be an efficient antioxidant in the brain. Together, these results suggested that 1800 MHz RF radiation could cause oxidative damage to mtDNA in primary cultured neurons. Oxidative damage to mtDNA may account for the neurotoxicity of RF radiation in the brain. Published in a good journal, this is further evidence in vitro that radiofrequency exposure that humans are commonly exposed to through mobile phone usage is potentially capable of DNA damage via oxidative stress. That this study found such damage in the neurons in the brain seems especially relevant.

12. P De Iuliis GN et al, (July 2009) Mobile phone radiation induces reactive oxygen species production and DNA damage in human spermatozoa in vitro, PLoS One. 2009 Jul 31;4(7):e6446 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

BACKGROUND: In recent times there has been some controversy over the impact of electromagnetic radiation on human health. The significance of mobile phone radiation on male reproduction is a key element of this debate since several studies have suggested a relationship between mobile phone use and semen quality. The potential mechanisms involved have not been established, however, human spermatozoa are known to be particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress by virtue of the abundant availability of substrates for free radical attack and the lack of cytoplasmic space to accommodate antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, the induction of oxidative stress in these cells not only perturbs their capacity for fertilization but also contributes to sperm DNA damage. The latter has, in turn, been linked with poor fertility, an increased incidence of miscarriage and morbidity in the offspring, including childhood cancer. In light of these associations, we have analyzed the influence of RF-EMR on the cell biology of human spermatozoa in vitro. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Purified human spermatozoa were exposed to radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) tuned to 1.8 GHz and covering a range of specific absorption rates (SAR) from 0.4 W/kg to 27.5 W/kg. In step with increasing SAR, motility and vitality were significantly reduced after RF-EMR exposure, while the mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species and DNA fragmentation were significantly elevated (P < 0.001). Furthermore, we also observed highly significant relationships between SAR, the oxidative DNA damage bio-marker, 8-OH-dG, and DNA fragmentation after RF-EMR exposure. CONCLUSIONS: RF-EMR in both the power density and frequency range of mobile phones enhances mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation by human spermatozoa, decreasing the motility and vitality of these cells while stimulating DNA base adduct formation and, ultimately DNA fragmentation. These findings have clear implications for the safety of extensive mobile phone use by males of reproductive age, potentially affecting both their fertility and the health and wellbeing of their offspring. Yet another paper finding highly significant findings from RF EMF on sperm. The researchers used 1800 MHz (although it is not clear whether it is modulated or CW from the abstract) RF, and purified human sperm, and found both motility impairment and evidence of DNA damage.

13. N Ahlbom A et al, (September 2009) Epidemiologic evidence on mobile phones and tumor risk: a review, Epidemiology. 2009 Sep;20(5):639-52 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

This review summarizes and interprets epidemiologic evidence bearing on a possible causal relation between radiofrequency field exposure from mobile phone use and tumor risk. In the last few years, epidemiologic evidence on mobile phone use and the risk of brain and other tumors of the head in adults has grown in volume, geographic diversity of study settings, and the amount of data on longer-term users. However, some key methodologic problems remain, particularly with regard to selective nonresponse and inaccuracy and bias in recall of phone use. Most studies of glioma show small increased or decreased risks among users, although a subset of studies show appreciably elevated risks. We considered methodologic features that might explain the deviant results, but found no clear explanation. Overall the studies published to date do not demonstrate an increased risk within approximately 10 years of use for any tumor of the brain or any other head tumor. Despite the methodologic shortcomings and the limited data on long latency and long-term use, the available data do not suggest a causal association between mobile phone use and fast-growing tumors such as malignant glioma in adults (at least for tumors with short induction periods). For slow-growing tumors such as meningioma and acoustic neuroma, as well as for glioma among long-term users, the absence of association reported thus far is less conclusive because the observation period has been too short. We find it disappointing that this ICNIRP group can claim that there is an "absence of association reported" for long term use, as we believe it represents a lack of thoroughness in the analysis of the data. The finish to the sentence that this is "less conclusive because of observation period" is misleading, implying that if it was longer this would be good support for the null hypothesis. In reality, most of the data collected, including the INTERPHONE studies, demonstrate strong indications that an increase in long term usage when compared to short term usage is apparent. There are a number of possible reasons for this, such as the short term findings being indicative of a genuine protective effect, that the flaws have created enough nonsense data that nothing can be concluded, or that the flaws generated a false "floor" of OR = 0.7 instead of OR = 1.0, where the values found for 10+ years demonstrate a significant increase in risk. To indicate that there was simply an "absence of association" does a disservice to the complexity and possible interpretations of the data that has been collected, as it implies that there's nothing there, when the truth is that there is a very complicated picture that requires careful interpretation.

14. P Nittby H et al, (August 2009) Increased blood-brain barrier permeability in mammalian brain 7 days after exposure to the radiation from a GSM-900 mobile phone, Pathophysiology. 2009 Aug;16(2-3):103-12. Epub 2009 Apr 2 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

Microwaves were for the first time produced by humans in 1886 when radio waves were broadcasted and received. Until then microwaves had only existed as a part of the cosmic background radiation since the birth of universe. By the following utilization of microwaves in telegraph communication, radars, television and above all, in the modern mobile phone technology, mankind is today exposed to microwaves at a level up to 10(20) times the original background radiation since the birth of universe. Our group has earlier shown that the electromagnetic radiation emitted by mobile phones alters the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), resulting in albumin extravasation immediately and 14 days after 2h of exposure. In the background section of this report, we present a thorough review of the literature on the demonstrated effects (or lack of effects) of microwave exposure upon the BBB. Furthermore, we have continued our own studies by investigating the effects of GSM mobile phone radiation upon the blood-brain barrier permeability of rats 7 days after one occasion of 2h of exposure. Forty-eight rats were exposed in TEM-cells for 2h at non-thermal specific absorption rates (SARs) of 0mW/kg, 0.12mW/kg, 1.2mW/kg, 12mW/kg and 120mW/kg. Albumin extravasation over the BBB, neuronal albumin uptake and neuronal damage were assessed. Albumin extravasation was enhanced in the mobile phone exposed rats as compared to sham controls after this 7-day recovery period (Fisher's exact probability test, p=0.04 and Kruskal-Wallis, p=0.012), at the SAR-value of 12mW/kg (Mann-Whitney, p=0.007) and with a trend of increased albumin extravasation also at the SAR-values of 0.12mW/kg and 120mW/kg. There was a low, but significant correlation between the exposure level (SAR-value) and occurrence of focal albumin extravasation (r(s)=0.33; p=0.04). The present findings are in agreement with our earlier studies where we have seen increased BBB permeability immediately and 14 days after exposure. We here discuss the present findings as well as the previous results of altered BBB permeability from our and other laboratories. This is yet another paper (e.g. Eberhart 2008, Nittby 2008) from the University Hospital in Lund successfully repeating the findings famously attributed to Leif Salford (also an author on this paper and the two referenced above) of blood brain barrier effects from exposure to mobile telephony radiation. Some recent papers (such as Masuda 2009) have recently attempted and failed to replicate these experiments in different laboratories. It would be very interesting to find out why there is repeated difference in the results between the different laboratories in their attempt to study blood brain barrier effects.

15. P Sirav B, Seyhan N, (2009) Blood-brain barrier disruption by continuous-wave radio frequency radiation, Electromagn Biol Med. 2009;28(2):215-22 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

The increasing use of cellular phones and the increasing number of associated base stations are becoming a widespread source of non ionizing electromagnetic radiation. Some biological effects are likely to occur even at low-level EM fields. This study was designed to investigate the effects of 900 and 1,800 MHz Continuous Wave Radio Frequency Radiation (CW RFR) on the permeability of Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) of rats. Results have shown that 20 min RFR exposure of 900 and 1,800 MHz induces an effect and increases the permeability of BBB of male rats. There was no change in female rats. The scientific evidence on RFR safety or harm remains inconclusive. More studies are needed to demonstrate the effects of RFR on the permeability of BBB and the mechanisms of that breakdown. Following straight up on the last paper, this is another study finding blood brain barrier effects, this time from Turkey (same group that were concerned that people could be exposed above ICNIRP basic restrictions by tight clusters of base stations). There's an interesting twist in this one in that the effects were only found in the male rats, adding another possible confounder into the papers that failed to find an effect.