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04/01/2012 - New Year 2012 - Science Update

The following is a quick summary of another twenty papers that have come out over the last few months related to effects of electromagnetic radiation. Some of the papers are notable papers that have been published very recently, others are papers that were published a few months ago that have not yet made it to one of the Science Updates.

1. N Sambucci M et al, (December 2011) Early life exposure to 2.45GHz WiFi-like signals: Effects on development and maturation of the immune system, Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2011 Dec;107(3):393-8. Epub 2011 Sep 9 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

The development of the immune system begins during embryogenesis, continues throughout fetal life, and completes its maturation during infancy. Exposure to immune-toxic compounds at levels producing limited/transient effects in adults, results in long-lasting or permanent immune deficits when it occurs during perinatal life. Potentially harmful radiofrequency (RF) exposure has been investigated mainly in adult animals or with cells from adult subjects, with most of the studies showing no effects. Is the developing immune system more susceptible to the effects of RF exposure? To address this question, newborn mice were exposed to WiFi signals at constant specific absorption rates (SAR) of 0.08 or 4W/kg, 2h/day, 5 days/week, for 5 consecutive weeks, starting the day after birth. The experiments were performed with a blind procedure using sham-exposed groups as controls. No differences in body weight and development among the groups were found in mice of both sexes. For the immunological analyses, results on female and male newborn mice exposed during early post-natal life did not show any effects on all the investigated parameters with one exception: a reduced IFN-? production in spleen cells from microwaves (MW)-exposed (SAR 4W/kg) male (not in female) mice compared with sham-exposed mice. Altogether our findings do not support the hypothesis that early post-natal life exposure to WiFi signals induces detrimental effects on the developing immune system.

2. - Ibitoye ZA, Aweda AM, (February 2011) Assessment of radiofrequency power density distribution around GSM and broadcast antenna masts in Lagos City, Nigeria, Nig Q J Hosp Med. 2011 Jan-Mar;21(1):35-40 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

Global system of mobile communication (GSM) and other telecommunication technologies are now common place in Lagos state Nigeria. The introduction of GSM in 2002 considerably increased radiofrequency (RF) radiation exposure of the public from telecommunications transmitting and receiving antennae. The RF radiation emanating from these devices, if above international limits may pose health risk to the public. There is need for database of RF distribution level in Nigeria for safety assessment. The purpose of this study is to determine power density around different telecommunications antenna base stations and compare the measured values with the international recommended exposure limits in order to assess the safety of the members of the public. A radiofrequency meter, Electrosmog from LESSEMF USA was used for the measurement. It is a highly sensitive device capable of measuring frequency between 50 MHz and 3.5 GHz. Measurements were taken at distances of 25, 50, 100, 150 and 200 m from selected antenna base stations in Lagos state. The results were compared with the International Commission of NonIonizing Radiation and Protection (ICNIRP) and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineering/American National Standard Institute (IEEE/ANSI). Power densities obtained varied between 0.219 and 302.40 mW.m(-2) from the studied base stations. Comparison of the results with the ICNIRP and IEEE/ANSI recommended safety standards of 12000 mW x m(-2) and 5700 mW x m(-2) showed that the exposure levels are very low. Power densities of the RF radiation from telecommunication transmitting/receiving antennae were far below international standard limits. The measured values are not likely capable of inducing significant hazardous health effects among the people that are at least 6 m away from the antennae.

3. - Marino C et al, (December 2011) Are the young more sensitive than adults to the effects of radiofrequency fields? An examination of relevant data from cellular and animal studies, Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2011 Dec;107(3):374-85. Epub 2011 Sep 8 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

It has sometimes been assumed that children are more sensitive than adults to the effects of radiofrequency (RF) fields associated with cellular wireless telephones. However, relatively few in vitro or animal models have examined this possibility. In vitro studies have used several cell types, from both humans and rodents, including primary cells, embryonic cell lines, undifferentiated cancer cell lines, and stem cells. Overall, the balance of evidence does not suggest that field-related effects occur in any cell type: gene and protein expression were not significantly changed by exposure in nine out of 15 studies; genotoxicity was evaluated in 13 papers and in most, of these studies, no damage to DNA was detected; eight studies failed to demonstrate induction of apoptosis; and three studies reported lack of oxidative stress induction by RF-exposures. Five of eight studies investigating the effects of combined exposures to RF fields and chemical or physical agents reported a lack of field-related effects. In addition, few papers have been published on the effects of low level exposure of immature animals. The available results are very limited, both in terms of signals used and biological endpoints investigated, but the evidence does not indicate that prenatal or early postnatal exposures are associated with acute adverse responses or the development of detrimental changes in the long-term. Overall, this suggests that young animals may not be significantly more sensitive than adults, but there is clearly a need for further studies to be carried out.

4. N Lindholm H et al, (December 2011) Thermal effects of mobile phone RF fields on children: A provocation study, Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2011 Dec;107(3):399-403. Epub 2011 Sep 10 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

The aim of this study was to examine thermal and local blood flow responses in the head area of the preadolescent boys during exposure to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields produced by a GSM mobile phone. The design was a double-blinded sham-controlled study of 26 boys, aged 14-15 years. The SAR distribution was calculated and modelled in detail. The duration of the sham periods and exposures with GSM 900 phone was 15 min each, and the tests were carried out in a climatic chamber in controlled thermoneutral conditions. The ear canal temperatures were registered from both ear canals, and the skin temperatures at several sites of the head, trunk and extremities. The local cerebral blood flow was monitored by a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and the autonomic nervous system function by recordings of ECG and continuous blood pressure. During the short-term RF exposure, local cerebral blood flow did not change, the ear canal temperature did not increase significantly and autonomic nervous system was not interfered. The strengths of this study were the age of the population, multifactorial physiological monitoring and strictly controlled thermal environment. The limitations of the study were large inter-individual variation in the physiological responses, and short duration of the exposure. Longer provocation protocols, however, might cause in children distress related confounding physiological responses.

5. P Papageorgiou CC et al, (June 2011) Effects of wi-fi signals on the p300 component of event-related potentials during an auditory hayling task, J Integr Neurosci. 2011 Jun;10(2):189-202. doi: 10.1142/S0219635211002695 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

The P300 component of event-related potentials (ERPs) is believed to index attention and working memory (WM) operation of the brain. The present study focused on the possible gender-related effects of Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity) electromagnetic fields (EMF) on these processes. Fifteen male and fifteen female subjects, matched for age and education level, were investigated while performing a modified version of the Hayling Sentence Completion test adjusted to induce WM. ERPs were recorded at 30 scalp electrodes, both without and with the exposure to a Wi-Fi signal. P300 amplitude values at 18 electrodes were found to be significantly lower in the response inhibition condition than in the response initiation and baseline conditions. Independent of the above effect, within the response inhibition condition there was also a significant gender X radiation interaction effect manifested at 15 leads by decreased P300 amplitudes of males in comparison to female subjects only at the presence of EMF. In conclusion, the present findings suggest that Wi-Fi exposure may exert gender-related alterations on neural activity associated with the amount of attentional resources engaged during a linguistic test adjusted to induce WM.

6. - Schuz J, (December 2011) Exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields and the risk of childhood cancer: Update of the epidemiological evidence, Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2011 Dec;107(3):339-42. Epub 2011 Sep 19 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

There is an ongoing scientific controversy whether the observed association between exposure to residential extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) and the risk of childhood leukaemia observed in epidemiological studies is causal or due to methodological shortcomings of those studies. Recent pooled analysis confirm results from previous studies, namely an approximately two-fold risk increase at ELF-MF exposures ≥0.4 µT, and demonstrate consistency of studies across countries, with different design, different methods of exposure assessment, and different systems of power transmission and distribution. On the other hand, recent pooled analyses for childhood brain tumour show little evidence for an association with ELF-MF, also at exposures ≥0.4 µT. Overall, the assessment that ELF-MF are a possible carcinogen and may cause childhood leukaemia remains valid. Ongoing research activities, mainly experimental and few new epidemiological studies, hopefully provide additional insight to bring clarity to a research area that has remained inconclusive.

7. P Lukac N et al, (October 2011) In vitro effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic waves on bovine spermatozoa motility, J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. 2011 Oct;46(12):1417-23 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

In this study the effects of 1800 MHz GSM-like radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW) exposure on bovine semen was monitored. The experimental samples were analyzed in vitro in four time periods (0, 30, 120 and 420 min) and compared with unexposed samples (control). Spermatozoa motility was determined by computer assisted semen analyzer (CASA). Evaluation of the percentage of motile spermatozoa showed significant (P < 0.001) decrease in experimental groups after 120 and 420 min of culture when exposed to microwaves, in comparison to control. Similar spermatozoa motility inhibition was detected for the percentage of progressively motile spermatozoa, too. Average path distance decreased significantly (p < 0.001) in experimental groups after 30 and 420 min of culture. Path velocity increased in the experimental groups exposed to RF-EMW after 30 minutes of culture, but subsequently decreased after 420 min of culture, in comparison to control. This indicates a possible initial stimulation and subsequent velocity inhibition of bovine spermatozoa under RF-EMW exposure. Changes in spermatozoa motility were also detected for some fine parameters, too. A significant decrease (P < 0.001) was noted for amplitude of lateral head displacement in the experimental group after 420 minutes of culture. Detailed in vitro motility analysis of bovine spermatozoa exposed to microwave radiation suggested that the parameters of path and velocity at the beginning of the culture significantly increase, but after longer culture (420 minutes) a significant decrease occur in the experimental group as compared to control. In general, results of this experiment indicate a negative time-dependent effect of 1800 MHz RF-EMW radiation on bovine spermatozoa motility.

8. - Feychting M, (December 2011) Mobile phones, radiofrequency fields, and health effects in children - Epidemiological studies, Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2011 Dec;107(3):343-8. Epub 2011 Sep 21 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

In 2004, when WHO organized a workshop on children's sensitivity to electromagnetic fields, very few studies on radiofrequency fields were available. With the recent increase in mobile phone use among children and adolescents, WHO has identified studies on health effects in this age-group as a high priority research area. There are no empirical data supporting the notion that children and adolescents are more susceptible to RF exposure, but the number of studies is still relatively small. There are a few cross-sectional studies on well-being, cognitive effects and behavioral problems, and some cohort studies, mainly of maternal use of mobile phones during pregnancy. Cancer outcomes have been studied in relation to environmental RF exposure, e.g. from transmitters, and only one study on mobile phone use in children and adolescents and brain tumor risk has been published. Several methodological limitations need to be taken into consideration when interpreting the findings of the epidemiological studies. The cross-sectional design does not allow determination of the temporal sequence of exposure and outcome, and for several outcomes there is a large potential for reversed causality, i.e. that the outcome causes an increased RF exposure rather than the opposite. Biases such as recall errors in self-reported mobile phone use, lack of confounding control, e.g. of other aspects of mobile phone use than RF fields, trained behaviors, and pubertal development, makes causal interpretations impossible. Future studies need to include prospectively collected exposure information, incident outcomes, and proper confounding control. Monitoring of brain tumor incidence trends is strongly recommended.

9. - Nijs J et al, (July 2011) In the mind or in the brain? Scientific evidence for central sensitisation in chronic fatigue syndrome, Eur J Clin Invest. 2011 Jul 2. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2362.2011.02575.x. [Epub ahead of print] [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

Central sensitisation entails several top-down and bottom-up mechanisms, all contributing to the hyperresponsiveness of the central nervous system to a variety of inputs. In the late nineties, it was first hypothesised that chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is characterised by hypersensitivity of the central nervous system (i.e. central sensitisation). Since then, several studies have examined central sensitisation in patients with CFS. This study provides an overview of such studies. Various studies showed generalised hyperalgesia in CFS for a variety of sensory stimuli, including electrical stimulation, mechanical pressure, heat and histamine. Various tissues are affected by generalised hyperalgesia: the skin, muscle tissue and the lungs. Generalised hyperalgesia in CFS is augmented, rather than decreased, following various types of stressors like exercise and noxious heat pain. Endogenous inhibition is not activated in response to exercise and activation of diffuse noxious inhibitory controls following noxious heat application to the skin is delayed. The observation of central sensitisation in CFS is in line with our current understanding of CFS. The presence of central sensitisation in CFS corroborates with the presence of several psychological influences on the illness, the presence of infectious agents and immune dysfunctions and the dysfunctional hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis as seen in these severely debilitated patients.

10. P Campisi A et al, (March 2010) Reactive oxygen species levels and DNA fragmentation on astrocytes in primary culture after acute exposure to low intensity microwave electromagnetic field, Neurosci Lett. 2010 Mar 31;473(1):52-5. Epub 2010 Feb 13 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

The exposure of primary rat neocortical astroglial cell cultures to acute electromagnetic fields (EMF) in the microwave range was studied. Differentiated astroglial cell cultures at 14 days in vitro were exposed for 5, 10, or 20min to either 900MHz continuous waves or 900MHz waves modulated in amplitude at 50Hz using a sinusoidal waveform and 100% modulation index. The strength of the electric field (rms value) at the sample position was 10V/m. No change in cellular viability evaluated by MTT test and lactate dehydrogenase release was observed. A significant increase in ROS levels and DNA fragmentation was found only after exposure of the astrocytes to modulated EMF for 20min. No evident effects were detected when shorter time intervals or continuous waves were used. The irradiation conditions allowed the exclusion of any possible thermal effect. Our data demonstrate, for the first time, that even acute exposure to low intensity EMF induces ROS production and DNA fragmentation in astrocytes in primary cultures, which also represent the principal target of modulated EMF. Our findings also suggest the hypothesis that the effects could be due to hyperstimulation of the glutamate receptors, which play a crucial role in acute and chronic brain damage. Furthermore, the results show the importance of the amplitude modulation in the interaction between EMF and neocortical astrocytes.

11. - Repacholi MH et al, (October 2011) Systematic review of wireless phone use and brain cancer and other head tumors, Bioelectromagnetics. 2011 Oct 21. doi: 10.1002/bem.20716. [Epub ahead of print] [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

We conducted a systematic review of scientific studies to evaluate whether the use of wireless phones is linked to an increased incidence of the brain cancer glioma or other tumors of the head (meningioma, acoustic neuroma, and parotid gland), originating in the areas of the head that most absorb radiofrequency (RF) energy from wireless phones. Epidemiology and in vivo studies were evaluated according to an agreed protocol; quality criteria were used to evaluate the studies for narrative synthesis but not for meta-analyses or pooling of results. The epidemiology study results were heterogeneous, with sparse data on long-term use (=10 years). Meta-analyses of the epidemiology studies showed no statistically significant increase in risk (defined as P < 0.05) for adult brain cancer or other head tumors from wireless phone use. Analyses of the in vivo oncogenicity, tumor promotion, and genotoxicity studies also showed no statistically significant relationship between exposure to RF fields and genotoxic damage to brain cells, or the incidence of brain cancers or other tumors of the head. Assessment of the review results using the Hill criteria did not support a causal relationship between wireless phone use and the incidence of adult cancers in the areas of the head that most absorb RF energy from the use of wireless phones. There are insufficient data to make any determinations about longer-term use (>= 10 years).

12. P Ballardin M et al, (November 2011) Non-thermal effects of 2.45 GHz microwaves on spindle assembly, mitotic cells and viability of Chinese hamster V-79 cells, Mutat Res. 2011 Nov 1;716(1-2):1-9. Epub 2011 Jul 30 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

The production of mitotic spindle disturbances and activation of the apoptosis pathway in V79 Chinese hamster cells by continuous 2.45 GHz microwaves exposure were studied, in order to investigate possible non-thermal cell damage. We demonstrated that microwave (MW) exposure at the water resonance frequency was able to induce alteration of the mitotic apparatus and apoptosis as a function of the applied power densities (5 and 10mW/cm(2)), together with a moderate reduction in the rate of cell division. After an exposure time of 15 min the proportion of aberrant spindles and of apoptotic cells was significantly increased, while the mitotic index decreased as well, as compared to the untreated V79 cells. Additionally, in order to understand if the observed effects were due to RF exposure per se or to a thermal effect, V79 cells were also treated in thermostatic bath mimicking the same temperature increase recorded during microwave emission. The effect of temperature on the correct assembly of mitotic spindles was negligible up to 41 °C, while apoptosis was induced only when the medium temperature achieved 40 °C, thus exceeding the maximum value registered during MW exposure. We hypothesise that short-time MW exposures at the water resonance frequency cause, in V79 cells, reversible alterations of the mitotic spindle, this representing, in turn, a pro-apoptotic signal for the cell line.

13. P Kesari KK et al, (December 2011) 900-MHz microwave radiation promotes oxidation in rat brain, Electromagn Biol Med. 2011 Dec;30(4):219-34 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

Recently, there have been several reports referring to detrimental effects due to radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) exposure. Special attention was given to investigate the effect of mobile phone exposure on the rat brain. Since the integrative mechanism of the entire body lies in the brain, it is suggestive to analyze its biochemical aspects. For this, 35-day old Wistar rats were exposed to a mobile phone for 2 h per day for a duration of 45 days where specific absorption rate (SAR) was 0.9 W/Kg. Animals were divided in two groups: sham exposed (n = 6) and exposed group (n = 6). Our observations indicate a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the level of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and an increase in catalase activity. Moreover, protein kinase shows a significant decrease in exposed group (P < 0.05) of hippocampus and whole brain. Also, a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the level of pineal melatonin and a significant increase (P < 0.05) in creatine kinase and caspase 3 was observed in exposed group of whole brain as compared with sham exposed. Finally, a significant increase in the level of ROS (reactive oxygen species) (P < 0.05) was also recorded. The study concludes that a reduction or an increase in antioxidative enzyme activities, protein kinase C, melatonin, caspase 3, and creatine kinase are related to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in animals under mobile phone radiation exposure. Our findings on these biomarkers are clear indications of possible health implications.

14. P Borhani N et al, (December 2011) Analysis of DNA fragmentation in mouse embryos exposed to an extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field, Electromagn Biol Med. 2011 Dec;30(4):246-52 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

Effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) on DNA damage in biological systems are still a matter of dispute. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible effect of electromagnetic field exposure on DNA fragmentation in cells (blastomers) of mouse blastocysts. Eighty female NMRI mice were randomly divided into 2 groups of 40 animals each. The control group was left unexposed whereas the animals in the EMF-group were exposed to a 50-Hz EMF at 0.5 mT 4 h per day, 6 days a week for a duration of 2 weeks. After the 8(th) day of exposure, the female mice in both groups were superovulated (with injections of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin) and then mated overnight. At approximately 4 days after mating (102 h after the human chorionic gonadotropin treatment), blastocysts were obtained by flushing the uterus horns. The mean numbers of pregnant mice, blastocysts after flushing, blastomers within the blastocysts, and the DNA fragmentation index following staining in both groups were compared using statistical methods (SPSS, the Chi-square test, the Student's t-test and the Mann-Whitney U-test, P < 0.05). The results showed that the mean number of blastocysts after flushing was significantly decreased in the EMF-group compared to that of the control group (P < 0.03). The DNA fragmentation index was significantly increased in the EMF-group compared to control (10.53% vs. 7.14%; P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in the mean numbers of blastomers and numbers of pregnant mice between the EMF-exposed and control group. Our findings indicate that the EMF exposure in preimplantation stage could have detrimental effects on female mouse fertility and embryo development by decreasing the number of blastocysts and increasing the blastocysts DNA fragmentation.

15. N Rubin GJ et al, (December 2011) Do people with idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields display physiological effects when exposed to electromagnetic fields? A systematic review of provocation studies, Bioelectromagnetics. 2011 Dec;32(8):593-609. doi: 10.1002/bem.20690. Epub 2011 Jul 18 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

Idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF) is a controversial illness in which people report symptoms that they believe are triggered by exposure to EMF. Double-blind experiments have found no association between the presence of EMF and self-reported outcomes in people with IEI-EMF. No systematic review has assessed whether EMF exposure triggers physiological or cognitive changes in this group. Using a systematic literature search, we identified 29 single or double-blind experiments in which participants with IEI-EMF were exposed to different EMF levels and in which objectively measured outcomes were assessed. Five studies identified significant effects of exposure such as reduced heart rate and blood pressure, altered pupillary light reflex, reduced visual attention and perception, improved spatial memory, movement away from an EMF source during sleep and altered EEG during sleep. In most cases, these were isolated results that other studies failed to replicate. For the sleep EEG findings, the results reflected similar changes in the IEI-EMF participants and a non-IEI-EMF control group. At present, there is no reliable evidence to suggest that people with IEI-EMF experience unusual physiological reactions as a result of exposure to EMF. This supports suggestions that EMF is not the main cause of their ill health.

16. P Avendano C et al, (January 2012) Use of laptop computers connected to internet through Wi-Fi decreases human sperm motility and increases sperm DNA fragmentation, Fertil Steril. 2012 Jan;97(1):39-45.e2. Epub 2011 Nov 23 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of laptop computers connected to local area networks wirelessly (Wi-Fi) on human spermatozoa. Motile sperm were selected by swim up. Each sperm suspension was divided into two aliquots. One sperm aliquot (experimental) from each patient (out of 29) was exposed to an internet-connected laptop by Wi-Fi for 4 hours, whereas the second aliquot (unexposed) was used as control, incubated under identical conditions without being exposed to the laptop. Donor sperm samples, mostly normozoospermic, exposed ex vivo during 4 hours to a wireless internet-connected laptop showed a significant decrease in progressive sperm motility and an increase in sperm DNA fragmentation. Levels of dead sperm showed no significant differences between the two groups. To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the direct impact of laptop use on human spermatozoa. Ex vivo exposure of human spermatozoa to a wireless internet-connected laptop decreased motility and induced DNA fragmentation by a nonthermal effect. We speculate that keeping a laptop connected wirelessly to the internet on the lap near the testes may result in decreased male fertility. Further in vitro and in vivo studies are needed to prove this contention.

17. P Zimmerman JW et al, (December 2011) Cancer cell proliferation is inhibited by specific modulation frequencies, Br J Cancer. 2011 Dec 1. doi: 10.1038/bjc.2011.523. [Epub ahead of print] [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

There is clinical evidence that very low and safe levels of amplitude-modulated electromagnetic fields administered via an intrabuccal spoon-shaped probe may elicit therapeutic responses in patients with cancer. However, there is no known mechanism explaining the anti-proliferative effect of very low intensity electromagnetic fields. To understand the mechanism of this novel approach, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells were exposed to 27.12 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields using in vitro exposure systems designed to replicate in vivo conditions. Cancer cells were exposed to tumour-specific modulation frequencies, previously identified by biofeedback methods in patients with a diagnosis of cancer. Control modulation frequencies consisted of randomly chosen modulation frequencies within the same 100 Hz-21 kHz range as cancer-specific frequencies. The growth of HCC and breast cancer cells was significantly decreased by HCC-specific and breast cancer-specific modulation frequencies, respectively. However, the same frequencies did not affect proliferation of nonmalignant hepatocytes or breast epithelial cells. Inhibition of HCC cell proliferation was associated with downregulation of XCL2 and PLP2. Furthermore, HCC-specific modulation frequencies disrupted the mitotic spindle. These findings uncover a novel mechanism controlling the growth of cancer cells at specific modulation frequencies without affecting normal tissues, which may have broad implications in oncology.

18. P Maskey D et al, (January 2012) Calcium-binding proteins and GFAP immunoreactivity alterations in murine hippocampus after 1 month of exposure to 835MHz radiofrequency at SAR values of 1.6 and 4.0W/kg, Neurosci Lett. 2012 Jan 11;506(2):292-6. Epub 2011 Nov 25 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

Widespread use of wireless mobile communication has raised concerns of adverse effect to the brain owing to the proximity during use due to the electromagnetic field emitted by mobile phones. Changes in calcium ion concentrations via binding proteins can disturb calcium homeostasis; however, the correlation between calcium-binding protein (CaBP) immunoreactivity (IR) and glial cells has not been determined with different SAR values. Different SAR values [1.6 (E1.6 group) and 4.0 (E4 group) W/kg] were applied to determine the distribution of calbindin D28-k (CB), calretinin (CR), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) IR in murine hippocampus. Compared with sham control group, decreased CB and CR IRs, loss of CB and CR immunoreactive cells and increased GFAP IR exhibiting hypertrophic cytoplasmic processes were noted in both experimental groups. E4 group showed a prominent decrement in CB and CR IR than the E1.6 group due to down-regulation of CaBP proteins and neuronal loss. GFAP IR was more prominent in the E4 group than the E1.6 group. Decrement in the CaBPs can affect the calcium-buffering capacity leading to cell death, while increased GFAP IR and changes in astrocyte morphology, may mediate brain injury due to radiofrequency exposure.

19. P Chu LY et al, (December 2011) Extremely low frequency magnetic field induces oxidative stress in mouse cerebellum, Gen Physiol Biophys. 2011 Dec;30(4):415-21 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

We have investigated whether extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) induces lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species in mouse cerebellum. After exposure to 60 Hz ELF-MF at 2.3 mT intensity for 3 hours, there was a significant increase in malondialdehyde level and hydroxyl radical. ELF-MF significantly induced concomitant increase in superoxide dismutase without alteration in glutathione peroxidase activity. While glutathione contents were not altered, ascorbic acid levels were significantly decreased by ELF-MF exposure. These results indicate that ELF-MF may induce oxidative stress in mouse cerebellum. However, the mechanism remains further to be characterized.

20. P Eskander EF et al, (November 2011) How does long term exposure to base stations and mobile phones affect human hormone profiles?, Clin Biochem. 2011 Nov 27. [Epub ahead of print] [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

This study is concerned with assessing the role of exposure to radio frequency radiation (RFR) emitted either from mobiles or base stations and its relations with human's hormone profiles. All volunteers' samples were collected for hormonal analysis. This study showed significant decrease in volunteers' ACTH, cortisol, thyroid hormones, prolactin for young females, and testosterone levels. The present study revealed that high RFR effects on pituitary-adrenal axis.