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30/01/2012 - January 2012 - Science Update

The following is a quick summary of another twenty papers that have come out over the last few months related to effects of electromagnetic radiation. Some of the papers are notable papers that have been published very recently, others are papers that were published a few months ago that have not yet made it to one of the Science Updates.

1. - Breckenkamp J et al, (October 2011) Residential characteristics and radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposures from bedroom measurements in Germany, Radiat Environ Biophys. 2011 Oct 1. [Epub ahead of print] [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

The objectives of this study were to assess total exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in bedrooms and the contribution of different radioservices (FM radio, analogue TV and DVB-T, TETRA, GSM900 downlink, GSM1800 downlink, UMTS downlink, DECT, and wireless LAN and blue tooth) to the total exposure. Additional aims were to describe the proportion of measuring values above the detection limit of the dosimeters and to characterize the differences in exposure patterns associated with self-reported residential characteristics. Exposure to RF sources in bedrooms was measured using Antennessa(®) EME Spy 120 dosimeters in 1,348 households in Germany; 280 measures were available for each frequency band per household. Mean electrical field strengths and power flux densities were calculated. Power flux densities allow the calculation of proportions of different radioservices on total exposure. Exposure was often below the detection limit (electrical field strength: 0.05 V/m) of the dosimeter. Total exposure varied, depending on residential characteristics (urban vs. rural areas and floor of a building the measurement took place). Major sources of exposure were cordless phones (DECT standard) and wireless LAN/blue tooth contributing about 82% of total exposure (20.5 uW/m(2)). Exposure to RF-EMF is ubiquitous, but exposure levels are-if at all measurable-very low and far below the ICNIRP's exposure reference levels.

2. N Frei P et al, (January 2012) Cohort study on the effects of everyday life radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure on non-specific symptoms and tinnitus, Environ Int. 2012 Jan;38(1):29-36. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2011.08.002. Epub 2011 Sep 10 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

There is public concern regarding potential health effects of radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) exposure, as produced by mobile phones or broadcast transmitters. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between RF-EMF exposure and non-specific symptoms and tinnitus in a prospective cohort study. In 2008, 1375 randomly selected participants from Basel, Switzerland, were enrolled in a questionnaire survey with follow-up after one year (participation rate 82%). A score for somatic complaints (von Zerssen list) and headache (HIT-6) was assessed. Far-field environmental RF-EMF exposure was predicted using a validated prediction model. Regarding near-field exposure, self-reported mobile and cordless phone use as well as mobile phone operator data were collected. In multivariate regression models, we investigated whether exposure at baseline (cohort analysis) or changes in exposure between baseline and follow-up (change analysis) were related to changes in health scores. For participants in the top decile of environmental far-field RF-EMF exposure at baseline, in comparison to participants exposed below the median value, the change in the von Zerssen- and HIT-6-scores between baseline and follow-up was -0.12 (95%-CI: -1.79 to 1.56) and -0.37 (95%-CI: -1.80 to 1.07) units, respectively. Exposure to near-field sources and a change in exposure between baseline and follow-up were not related to non-specific symptoms. Similarly, no association between RF-EMF exposure and tinnitus was observed. In this first cohort study using objective and well-validated RF-EMF exposure measures, we did not observe an association between RF-EMF exposure and non-specific symptoms or tinnitus.

3. - Boursianis A et al, (October 2011) Measurements for assessing the exposure from 3G femtocells, Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2011 Oct 13. [Epub ahead of print] [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

Femtocells are low-power access points, which combine mobile and broadband technologies. The main operation of a femtocell is to function as a miniature base station unit in an indoor environment and to connect to the operator's network through a broadband phone line or a coaxial cable line. This study provides the first experimental measurements and results in Greece for the assessment of exposure to a femtocell access point (FAP) indoors. Using a mobile handset with the appropriate software, power level measurements of the transmitted (Tx) and the received by the mobile handset signal were performed in two different and typical (home and office) environments. Moreover, radiofrequency electric field strength and frequency selective measurements with a radiation meter (SRM-3000) were carried out in the proximity of the FAP installation point. The cumulative distribution functions of the Tx power at most cases (except one) show that in 90% of all points the power of the mobile phone was lower by at least 7 dB during FAP operation. At a distance of ~1 m from the FAP (in its main beam), power flux density measurements show that there is very little difference between the two situations (FAP ON and OFF). As a conclusion, the use of femtocells indoors improves reception quality, reduces the Tx power of the user's mobile terminal and results in an indiscernible increase of the electromagnetic field in front of the unit, at values that are extremely low compared with reference levels of exposure guidelines.

4. - Gandhi OP et al, (October 2011) Exposure Limits: The underestimation of absorbed cell phone radiation, especially in children, Electromagn Biol Med. 2011 Oct 14. [Epub ahead of print] [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

The existing cell phone certification process uses a plastic model of the head called the Specific Anthropomorphic Mannequin (SAM), representing the top 10% of U.S. military recruits in 1989 and greatly underestimating the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) for typical mobile phone users, especially children. A superior computer simulation certification process has been approved by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) but is not employed to certify cell phones. In the United States, the FCC determines maximum allowed exposures. Many countries, especially European Union members, use the "guidelines" of International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), a non governmental agency. Radiofrequency (RF) exposure to a head smaller than SAM will absorb a relatively higher SAR. Also, SAM uses a fluid having the average electrical properties of the head that cannot indicate differential absorption of specific brain tissue, nor absorption in children or smaller adults. The SAR for a 10-year old is up to 153% higher than the SAR for the SAM model. When electrical properties are considered, a child's head's absorption can be over two times greater, and absorption of the skull's bone marrow can be ten times greater than adults. Therefore, a new certification process is needed that incorporates different modes of use, head sizes, and tissue properties. Anatomically based models should be employed in revising safety standards for these ubiquitous modern devices and standards should be set by accountable, independent groups.

5. - Peyman A et al, (June 2011) Assessment of exposure to electromagnetic fields from wireless computer networks (wi-fi) in schools; results of laboratory measurements, Health Phys. 2011 Jun;100(6):594-612. [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

Laboratory measurements have been carried out with examples of Wi-Fi devices used in UK schools to evaluate the radiofrequency power densities around them and the total emitted powers. Unlike previous studies, a 20 MHz bandwidth signal analyzer was used, enabling the whole Wi-Fi signal to be captured and monitored. The radiation patterns of the laptops had certain similarities, including a minimum toward the torso of the user and two maxima symmetrically opposed across a vertical plane bisecting the screen and keyboard. The maxima would have resulted from separate antennas mounted behind the top left and right corners of the laptop screens. The patterns for access points were more symmetrical with generally higher power densities at a given distance. The spherically-integrated radiated power (IRP) ranged from 5 to 17 mW for 15 laptops in the 2.45 GHz band and from 1 to 16 mW for eight laptops in the 5 GHz band. For practical reasons and because access points are generally wall-mounted with beams directed into the rooms, their powers were integrated over a hemisphere. These ranged from 3 to 28 mW for 12 access points at 2.4 GHz and from 3 to 29 mW for six access points at 5 GHz. In addition to the spherical measurements of IRP, power densities were measured at distances of 0.5 m and greater from the devices, and consistent with the low radiated powers, these were all much lower than the ICNIRP reference level.

6. N Lee HJ et al, (October 2011) The effects of simultaneous combined exposure to CDMA and WCDMA electromagnetic fields on rat testicular function, Bioelectromagnetics. 2011 Oct 19. doi: 10.1002/bem.20715. [Epub ahead of print] [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

Wireless mobile phones and other telecommunication devices are used extensively in daily life. We therefore examined the effects of combined exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on rat testicular function, specifically with respect to sensitive processes such as spermatogenesis. Male rats were exposed to single code division multiple access (CDMA) and wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA) RF signals for 12 weeks. The RF exposure schedule comprised 45?min/day, 5 days/week for a total of 12 weeks. The whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) of CDMA and WCDMA was 2.0 W/kg each or 4.0 W/kg in total. We then investigated the correlates of testicular function such as sperm count in the cauda epididymis, testosterone concentration in the blood serum, malondialdehyde concentrations in the testes and epididymis, frequency of spermatogenesis stages, and appearance of apoptotic cells in the testes. We also immunoblotted for p53, bcl2, GADD45, cyclin G, and HSP70 in the testes of sham- and combined RF-exposed animals. Based on the results, we concluded that simultaneous exposure to CDMA and WCDMA RF-EMFs at 4.0 W/kg SAR did not have any observable adverse effects on rat spermatogenesis.

7. P Esmekaya MA et al, (December 2011) Mutagenic and morphologic impacts of 1.8GHz radiofrequency radiation on human peripheral blood lymphocytes (hPBLs) and possible protective role of pre-treatment with Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761), Sci Total Environ. 2011 Dec 1;410-411:59-64. Epub 2011 Oct 19 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

The mutagenic and morphologic effects of 1.8GHz Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) modulated RF (radiofrequency) radiation alone and in combination with Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) pre-treatment in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (hPBLs) were investigated in this study using Sister Chromatid Exchange (SCE) and electron microscopy. Cell viability was assessed with 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay. The lymphocyte cultures were exposed to GSM modulated RF radiation at 1.8GHz for 6, 8, 24 and 48h with and without EGb 761. We observed morphological changes in pulse-modulated RF radiated lymphocytes. Longer exposure periods led to destruction of organelle and nucleus structures. Chromatin change and the loss of mitochondrial crista occurred in cells exposed to RF for 8h and 24h and were more pronounced in cells exposed for 48h. Cytoplasmic lysis and destruction of membrane integrity of cells and nuclei were also seen in 48h RF exposed cells. There was a significant increase (p < 0.05) in SCE frequency in RF exposed lymphocytes compared to sham controls. EGb 761 pre-treatment significantly decreased SCE from RF radiation. RF radiation also inhibited cell viability in a time dependent manner. The inhibitory effects of RF radiation on the growth of lymphoctes were marked in longer exposure periods. EGb 761 pre-treatment significantly increased cell viability in RF+EGb 761 treated groups at 8 and 24h when compared to RF exposed groups alone. The results of our study showed that RF radiation affects cell morphology, increases SCE and inhibits cell proliferation. However, EGb 761 has a protective role against RF induced mutagenity. We concluded that RF radiation induces chromosomal damage in hPBLs but this damage may be reduced by EGb 761 pre-treatment.

8. P Sun W et al, (November 2011) A 1.8-GHz radiofrequency radiation induces EGF receptor clustering and phosphorylation in cultured human amniotic (FL) cells, Int J Radiat Biol. 2011 Nov 18. [Epub ahead of print] [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

Many studies have shown that exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) could activate cellular signal transduction pathways. In the present research, we investigated the effects of exposure to a 1.8-GHz RFR at different intensities on epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor clustering and phosphorylation in human amniotic (FL) cells. Receptor clustering on cellular membrane surface was analyzed using immunofluorescence assessed by confocal microscopy, and phosphorylation of EGF receptors was measured by western blot technology. EGF treatment served as a positive control. The results showed that, compared with sham exposure, exposure to RFR at specific absorption rate (SAR) of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, or 4.0 W/kg for 15 min significantly induced EGF receptor clustering and enhanced phosphorylation on the tyrosine-1173 residue in FL cells, whereas exposure to a SAR 0.1 W/kg radiation for 15 min did not cause a significant effect. Based on the results of this experiment, we conclude that membrane receptors could be one of the main targets that RFR interacts with cells, and the dose-rate threshold, in the case of EGF receptors, is between SAR of 0.1 and 0.5 W/kg. The results indicate a sigmoid dependence of RFR effects on intensity.

9. - Rufo MM et al, (December 2011) Exposure to high-frequency electromagnetic fields (100 kHz-2 GHz) in Extremadura (Spain), Health Phys. 2011 Dec;101(6):739-45 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

The last decade has seen a rapid increase in people's exposure to electromagnetic fields. This paper reports the measurements of radiofrequency (RF) total power densities and power density spectra in 35 towns of the region of Extremadura, Spain. The spectra were taken with three antennas covering frequencies from 100 kHz to 2.2 GHz. This frequency range includes AM/FM radio broadcasting, television, and cellular telephone signals. The power density data and transmitting antenna locations were stored in a geographic information system (GIS) as an aid in analyzing and interpreting the results. The results showed the power density levels to be below the reference level guidelines for human exposure and that the power densities are different for different frequency ranges and different size categories of towns.

10. P Sirav B, Seyhan N, (December 2011) Effects of radiofrequency radiation exposure on blood-brain barrier permeability in male and female rats, Electromagn Biol Med. 2011 Dec;30(4):253-60 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

During the last several decades, numerous studies have been performed aiming at the question of whether or not exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) influences the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of RFR on the permeability of BBB in male and female Wistar albino rats. Right brain, left brain, cerebellum, and total brain were analyzed separately in the study. Rats were exposed to 0.9 and 1.8 GHz continuous-wave (CW) RFR for 20 min (at SARs of 4.26 mW/kg and 1.46 mW/kg, respectively) while under anesthesia. Control rats were sham-exposed. Disruption of BBB integrity was detected spectrophotometrically using the Evans-blue dye, which has been used as a BBB tracer and is known to be bound to serum albumin. Right brain, left brain, cerebellum, and total brain were evaluated for BBB permeability. In female rats, no albumin extravasation was found in in the brain after RFR exposure. A significant increase in albumin was found in the brains of the RF-exposed male rats when compared to sham-exposed male brains. These results suggest that exposure to 0.9 and 1.8 GHz CW RFR at levels below the international limits can affect the vascular permeability in the brain of male rats. The possible risk of RFR exposure in humans is a major concern for the society. Thus, this topic should be investigated more thoroughly in the future.

11. N Swerdlow AJ et al, (November 2011) Mobile phones, brain tumors, and the interphone study: where are we now?, Environ Health Perspect. 2011 Nov;119(11):1534-8 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

In the past 15 years, mobile telephone use has evolved from an uncommon activity to one with > 4.6 billion subscriptions worldwide. However, there is public concern about the possibility that mobile phones might cause cancer, especially brain tumors. We reviewed the evidence on whether mobile phone use raises the risk of the main types of brain tumor - glioma and meningioma - with a particular focus on the recent publication of the largest epidemiologic study yet: the 13-country Interphone Study. Methodological deficits limit the conclusions that can be drawn from the Interphone study, but its results, along with those from other epidemiologic, biological, and animal studies and brain tumor incidence trends, suggest that within about 10-15 years after first use of mobile phones there is unlikely to be a material increase in the risk of brain tumors in adults. Data for childhood tumors and for periods beyond 15 years are currently lacking. Although there remains some uncertainty, the trend in the accumulating evidence is increasingly against the hypothesis that mobile phone use can cause brain tumors in adults.

12. - Costin GE et al, (October 2011) Trends in Wound Repair: Cellular and Molecular Basis of Regenerative Therapy Using Electromagnetic Fields, Curr Mol Med. 2011 Oct 27. [Epub ahead of print] [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

Chronic ulceration of the leg represents a major, underestimated problem of modern health care, involving physical and cosmetic impairment and social stigma along with high community costs for patients' treatment. The increasing prevalence of chronic ulcers, currently reported to be as much as 0.3% in the general population, should stimulate identification of more efficacious therapeutic approaches to achieve complete healing. The strategies of regenerative medicine based on small molecules, biomimetic scaffolds, gene or cell therapy, and electromagnetic field manipulation represent some of the modern therapeutic alternatives for wound healing. Here we review in an integrated, interdisciplinary approach the modern cellular and molecular mechanistic concepts regarding the involvement of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) in the complex process of tissue repair, with particular focus on chronic wounds. The data analysis supports three main effects of electromagnetic fields on the wound healing pathways: 1) an anti-inflammatory effect, by modulation of cytokine profile that induces the transition of the healing process from a chronic pro-inflammatory to an anti-inflammatory state; 2) a neo-angiogenic effect, by increased endothelial cells proliferation and tubulization and production of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2; and 3) a re-epithelialization effect, by stimulation of collagen formation. We believe that utilization of ELF-EMF in larger clinical trials designed to optimize these functional parameters would facilitate a better understanding of ELF-EMF-induced healing mechanisms and lead to improved therapeutic outcomes for this disabling condition which is often totally resistant to treatment.

13. P Wang X et al, (August 2011) Occupational and residential exposure to electric and magnetic field and its relationship on acute myeloid leukemia in adults - A Meta-analysis, Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2011 Aug;32(8):821-6 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

Studies had suggested that risk of leukemia might be associated with occupational or residential exposures to electromagnetic fields and varied at distance to and level of the exposure or type of occupations. Through pooled analyses, etiologic insight on the associations between exposure and disease might be explained. We carried out a Meta-analysis based on primary data (1980 - 2010) from 9 studies related to the electric and magnetic fields exposure and acute myeloid leukemia in adults to assess whether the combined results, adjusted for potential confounding, would indicate an association between them. In this study the overall estimated OR value was 1.24 (95%CI: 1.11 - 1.37). The odds ratios for exposure categories of 0.1 - 0.2 µT, = 0.2 µT, compared with < 0.1 µT, were 1.17 (95% CI: 0.98 - 1.39) and 1.51 (95% CI: 1.15 - 1.98), respectively. Through employing the alternate cut points, stratification by level of exposure or distance and the relation on different ways of exposure, there appeared consistent evidence of increased risk between acute myeloid leukemia in adults and the extremely low frequency-electromagnetic to field exposure.

14. P Shin EJ et al, (September 2011) Exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields induces fos-related antigen-immunoreactivity via activation of dopaminergic d1 receptor, Exp Neurobiol. 2011 Sep;20(3):130-6. Epub 2011 Sep 20 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

We previously demonstrated that repeated exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) increases locomotor activity via stimulation of dopaminergic D1 receptor (J. Pharmacol. Sci., 2007;105:367-371). Since it has been demonstrated that activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factors, especially 35-kDa fos-related antigen (FRA), play a key role in the neuronal and behavioral adaptation in response to various stimuli, we examined whether repeated ELF-MF exposure induces FRA-immunoreactivity (FRA-IR) in the striatum and nucleus accumbens (striatal complex) of the mice. Repeated exposure to ELF-MF (0.3 or 2.4 mT, 1 h/day, for consecutive fourteen days) significantly induced hyperlocomotor activity and FRA-IR in the striatal complex in a field intensity-dependent manner. ELF-MF-induced FRA-IR lasted for at least 1 year, while locomotor activity returned near control level 3 months after the final exposure to ELF-MF. Pretreatment with SCH23390, a dopaminergic D1 receptor antagonist, but not with sulpiride, a dopaminergic D2 receptor antagonist, significantly attenuated hyperlocomotor activity and FRA-IR induced by ELF-MF. Our results suggest that repeated exposure to ELF-MF leads to prolonged locomotor stimulation and long-term expression of FRA in the striatal complex of the mice via stimulation of dopaminergic D1 receptor.

15. N Hwang YH et al, (October 2011) Intracellular Ca Mobilization and Beta-hexosaminidase Release Are Not Influenced by 60 Hz-electromagnetic Fields (EMF) in RBL 2H3 Cells, Korean J Physiol Pharmacol. 2011 Oct;15(5):313-7. Epub 2011 Oct 31 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

The effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) on intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization and cellular function in RBL 2H3 cells were investigated. Exposure to EMF (60 Hz, 0.1 or 1 mT) for 4 or 16 h did not produce any cytotoxic effects in RBL 2H3 cells. Melittin, ionomycin and thapsigargin each dose-dependently increased the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. The increase of intracellular Ca(2+) induced by these three agents was not affected by exposure to EMF (60 Hz, 1 mT) for 4 or 16 h in RBL 2H3 cells. To investigate the effect of EMF on exocytosis, we measured beta-hexosaminidase release in RBL 2H3 cells. Basal release of beta-hexosaminidase was 12.3±2.3% in RBL 2H3 cells. Exposure to EMF (60 Hz, 0.1 or 1 mT) for 4 or 16 h did not affect the basal or 1 µM melittin-induced beta-hexosaminidase release in RBL 2H3 cells. This study suggests that exposure to EMF (60 Hz, 0.1 or 1 mT), which is the limit of occupational exposure, has no influence on intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization and cellular function in RBL 2H3 cells.

16. P Guler G et al, (December 2011) The effect of radiofrequency radiation on DNA and lipid damage in female and male infant rabbits, Int J Radiat Biol. 2011 Dec 7. [Epub ahead of print] [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

We aimed to design a prolonged Radiofrequency (RF) radiation exposure and investigate in an animal model, possible bio-effects of RF radiation on the ongoing developmental stages of children from conception to childhood. A total of 72 New Zealand female and male white rabbits aged 1-month were used. Females were exposed to RF radiation for 15 min/day during 7 days, whereas males were exposed to the same level of radiation for 15 min/day during 14 days. Thirty-six female and thirty-six male infant rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: Group I [Intrauterine (IU) exposure (-); Extrauterine (EU) exposure (-)]: Sham exposure which means rabbits were exposed to 1800 MHz Global System for Mobile Telecommunication (GSM)-like RF signals neither in the IU nor in the EU periods. Group II [IU exposure (-); EU exposure (+)]: Infant rabbits were exposed to 1800 MHz GSM-like RF signals when they reached 1-month of age. Group III [IU exposure(+); EU exposure (-)]: Infant rabbits were exposed to 1800 MHz GSM-like RF signals in the IU period (between 15(th) and 22(nd) days of the gestational period). Group IV [IU exposure(+); EU exposure (+)]: Infant rabbits were exposed to 1800 MHz GSM-like RF signals both in the IU period (between 15(th) and 22(nd) days of the gestational period) and in the EU period when they reached 1-month of age. Biochemical analysis for lipid peroxidation and DNA damage were carried out in the livers of all rabbits. Lipid peroxidation levels in the liver tissues of female and male infant rabbits increased under RF radiation exposure. Liver 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels of female rabbits exposed to RF radiation were also found to increase when compared with the levels of non-exposed infants. However, there were no changes in liver 8-OHdG levels of male rabbits under RF exposure. Consequently, it can be concluded that GSM-like RF radiation may induce biochemical changes by increasing free radical attacks to structural biomolecules in the rabbit as an experimental animal model.

17. P Yoon SY et al, (2011) Induction of Hair Growth by Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 in 1,763 MHz Radiofrequency-Irradiated Hair Follicle Cells, PLoS One. 2011;6(12):e28474. Epub 2011 Dec 2 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

Radiofrequency (RF) radiation does not transfer high energy to break the covalent bonds of macromolecules, but these low energy stimuli might be sufficient to induce molecular responses in a specific manner. We monitored the effect of 1,763 MHz RF radiation on cultured human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) by evaluating changes in the expression of cytokines related to hair growth. The expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) mRNA in hDPCs was significantly induced upon RF radiation at the specific absorption rate of 10 W/kg, which resulted in increased expression of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) and cyclin D1 (CCND1) proteins and increased phosphorylation of MAPK1 protein. Exposure to 10 W/kg RF radiation 1 h per day for 7 days significantly enhanced hair shaft elongation in ex vivo hair organ cultures. In RF-exposed follicular matrix keratinocytes in the hair bulb, the expression of Ki-67 was increased, while the signal for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling was reduced. From these results, we suggest that 1,763 MHz RF exposure stimulates hair growth in vitro through the induction of IGF-1 in hDPCs.

18. - Bortkiewicz A et al, (March 2012) Subjective complaints of people living near mobile phone base stations in Poland, Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2012 Mar;25(1):31-40. Epub 2012 Jan 5 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

The aim of our study was to assess the health conditions and subjective symptoms of the inhabitants living in the base stations vicinity and to analyse the relationship between the complaints and level of exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF). Our study was performed in housing estates located in five regions of Lódz. The electric field measurements were performed in the buildings located closest to the azimuth of the antennas. Respondents were selected by trained interviewers using an uniform procedure. The number of the households to be examined was set at a minimum of 420. The questionnaire contained: demographic data, occupational and environmental exposure to EMF, health condition, subjective complaints. Results were adjusted for confounders (age, gender, EMF at the workplace and EMF emitted by household equipment) using multiple regression model. 181 men and 319 women from 500 households were examined. Electric field above 0.8 V/m was recorded in 12% of flats. There was no significant correlation between electric field strength and the distance of examined flats from the base stations. To make possible comparison with relevant literature, we analysed also the frequency of the reported symptoms vs. the distance. Headache was declared by 57% people, most frequently (36.4%) living 100-150 m away from the base station compared to people living at longer distances (p = 0.013). 24.4% subjects, mostly living at a distance above 150 m, declared impaired memory. Difference was statistically significant in comparison with people living at other distances (p = 0.004). The explanation why we did not find any correlation between the electric field strength and frequency of subjective symptoms but found a correlation between subjective symptoms and distance from base station needs further studies. Maybe new metrics of exposure assessment should be adopted for this purpose.

19. - Genuis SJ, Lipp CT, (December 2011) Electromagnetic hypersensitivity: Fact or fiction?, Sci Total Environ. 2011 Dec 5. [Epub ahead of print] [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

As the prevalence of wireless telecommunication escalates throughout the world, health professionals are faced with the challenge of patients who report symptoms they claim are connected with exposure to some frequencies of electromagnetic radiation (EMR). Some scientists and clinicians acknowledge the phenomenon of hypersensitivity to EMR resulting from common exposures such as wireless systems and electrical devices in the home or workplace; others suggest that electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is psychosomatic or fictitious. Various organizations including the World Health Organization as well as some nation states are carefully exploring this clinical phenomenon in order to better explain the rising prevalence of non-specific, multi-system, often debilitating symptoms associated with non-ionizing EMR exposure. As well as an assortment of physiological complaints, patients diagnosed with EHS also report profound social and personal challenges, impairing their ability to function normally in society. This paper offers a review of the sparse literature on this perplexing condition and a discussion of the controversy surrounding the legitimacy of the EHS diagnosis. Recommendations are provided to assist health professionals in caring for individuals complaining of EHS.

20. P Janac B et al, (January 2012) Temporal patterns of extremely low frequency magnetic field-induced motor behaviour changes in Mongolian gerbils of different age, Int J Radiat Biol. 2012 Jan 6. [Epub ahead of print] [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) on different behaviour parameters (locomotion, stereotypy, and immobility) in 3- and 10-month-old male Mongolian gerbils. The animals were continuously exposed to ELF-MF (50 Hz; 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 mT) for 7 days. Their behaviour was monitored for 60 min in the open field after the 1(st), 2(nd), 4(th), and 7(th) day of exposure (immediate effect), and 3 days after ELF-MF exposure has been ceased (delayed effect). In 3-month-old gerbils, exposure to ELF-MF (0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 mT) increased motor behaviour (locomotion and stereotypy), and consequently decreased immobility. Additionally, ELF-MF had delayed effect (except 0.25 mT) on stereotypy and immobility. In 10-month-old gerbils, ELF-MF of 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 mT induced decrease, slight increase, and pronounced stimulation of motor behaviour, respectively. Regardless of magnetic induction value, increased motor behaviour was observed 3 days after ELF-MF exposure has been ceased (delayed effect). It can be proposed that the specific temporal patterns of ELF-MF-induced motor behaviour changes in 3- and 10-month-old gerbils are consequence of age-dependent morpho-functional differences in the brain structures responsible for a control of motor behaviour